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Flashcards in Pastest Deck (23)
1

Specialised epithelial cells lining the distal concoluted tubule

Macula densa

2

Located at the afferent arterioles: modified smooth muscle cells that are renin secreting

Juxtaglomerular cells

3

DHIS

Distal hypoperfusion ischaemic syndrome

This is a rare complication of AV fistula. There is shunting of the blood flow through the fistula, and there is distal ischaemia

This can result in ischaemic ulcers and necrosis. Also, there may be pallor and diminshed pulses distal to the fistula

4

pCO2 increased, HCO3 increased, Urine pH decreased

Respiratory acidosis

5

pCO2 increased, HCO3 increased, Urine pH decreased

Metabolic alkalosis

6

pCO2 decreased, HCO3 decreased, urine pH decreased

Metabolic acidosis (not due to renal cause because kidneys are still trying to filter out the excess H+, hence the decreased urine pH)

7

pCO2 decreased, HCO3 decreased, urine pH increased

Metabolic acidosis secondary to renal cause

8

Envelope shaped crystals in urine

Calcium oxalate crystals

9

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamin B and C

10

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamin A, D, E, K

11

Excess of which vitamin can interfere with vitamin K metabolism?

Vitamin E can interfere = tendency to bleed

12

What is ADPKD associated with?

Berry aneurysms

Cysts
(hepatic, pancreatic, ovarian)

Hepatic fibrosis (rare)

Diverticular disease

Mitral valve prolapse or aortic incompetence

13

Why might a general anaesthetic increase your chances of getting a UTI?

General anaesthetic agents have an effect on the sacral nerve supply to the bladder predisposing to urinary retention; this allows bacteria to stay in the bladder longer, increasing the risk of infection

14

Hepatic fibrosis and ADPKD and ARPKD

Rare in dominant

100% in recessvie

15

Generalised oedema
Low albumin
Renal impairment
Elevated cholesterol


...what am I?

Nephrotic syndrome

16

What might eosinophilia suggest?

Might suggest drug induced nephritis

-NSAIDs
-cephalosporins
-methicillin

17

c-ANCA

GPA

18

What do renal casts suggest?

Glomerulonephritis

19

When are small kidneys seen?

Chronic renal failure

20

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules

May be seen on renal biopsy in siabetic nephropathy

21

Proteinuria and ACEi's/ARBs?

ACE inhibitors and ARBS reduce proteinuria

22

List 3 causes of polyuria and polydipsia?

Hypokalemia

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes insipidus

23

Acute/chronic renal failure and weeing

Acute renal failure tends to produce oligouria and chronic renal failure tens to produce polyuria