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Flashcards in Pathology 2 Deck (32)
1

Infantile polycystic kidney disease inheritance?

Autosomal recessive

2

What is infantile polycystic disease associated with?

Congenital hepatic fibrosis

3

Adult polycystic disease inheritance?

Autosomal dominant

4

Which chromosome has a defect in adult polycystic disease?

Chromosome 16
(or chromosome 4)

5

How does adult polycystic disease present?

Usually middle adult life --> abdominal mass, haematuria, hypertension, CRF

(CRF = chronic renal failure)

6

What is adult polycystic disease associated with?

Association with berry aneurysm

7

Where do fibromas arise from and what do they look like?

Medullary
White nodules

8

Where do adenomas arise from and what do they look like?

Adenomas are yellow, they are cortical

9

What are angiomyolipoms?

They are a mixture of fat, muscle and blood vessels.
Can be multiple and bilateral
ASSOCIATED WITH TUBEROSE SCLEROSIS

10

JGCT

Juxtaglomerular cell tumor
-produce renin = lead to secondary hypertension

11

Commonest intra-abdominal tumour in children?

Nephroblastoma

12

Where does a nephroblastoma arise from?

Arises from residual primitive renal tissue
-commonest intra-abdominal tumour in children

13

Where doe urothelial carcinomas affect?

Renal pevis and calyces

14

Another name fo nephroblastoma?

Wilms' tumour

15

Clear cell carcinoma?

Renal cell carcinoma

16

Where does a renal cell carcinoma arise from?

Arise from renal tubular epithelium

17

Commonest primary renal tumour in adults?

Renal cell carcinoma
-yellow colour with solid, cystic, necrotic and haemorrhagic areas

18

How does renal cell carcinoma present?

Abdominal mass, haematuria, flank pain, general features of malignant disease
Paraneoplastic manifestations:
-polycythaemia because renal cell carcinoma produces ERYTHROPOEITIC STIMULATING SUBSTANCE
-also hypercalcemia

19

Grading used for renal cell carcinoma?

Fuhrman

20

Blood borne spread of renal cell carcinoma?

Blood borne metastatic spread to lung, bone
Lymphatic spread later

21

90% of all bladder tumours?

Transitional cell carcinoma
(arise from transitional epithelium)
-75% occur in region of trigone

22

Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma?

Aniline dyes, rubber industry, benzidine, cyclophosphamide, analgesics (renal pelvis), schistosomiasis, SMOKING

23

Commonest symptom of transitional cell carcinoma?

Haematuria is commonest symptom

24

pT1 (transitional cell carcinoma)

Stromal invasion

25

pT2 (transitional epithelium)

Muscle invasion

26

Extroversion (glandular metaplasia), urachal remnants, long standing cystitis cystica are risk factors for which type of cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

27

Calculi (squamous metaplasia) and schistosomiasis are risk factors for which type of cancer?

Squamous carcinoma

28

Commonest malignant bladder tumour in children?

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

29

Which benign renal tumour produces renin?

JGCT
(juxtaglomerular cell tumour)
-Produces renin --> this leads to secondary hypertension!!!

30

Which benign renal tumour is associated with tuberose sclerosis?

Angiomyolipoma

31

Tumour of proximal convoluted tubule?

Renal cell carcinoma
-arises from renal tubular epithelium

32

Another name for Wilms' tumour?

Nephroblastoma