Flashcards in Adverse Drug Reactions Deck (23):
Are adverse effects different from side effects?
What are the 6 classes of adverse effects.
A - augmented, dose dependent, predictable
B - bizarre, dose independent, unpredictable
C - chronic
D - delayed
E - end of treatment effects
F - failure of therapy
What are the 4 mechanisms of Type A effects.
1. Pre renal failure
2. Renal - tubular necrosis etc
3. Post renal
4. Drug interactions
What mechanism are diuretics and ACE Is involved in?
What effect do ACE Is and ARBs have in terms of pre renal failure?
D and V
What effect do diuretics have in terms of pre renal failure?
Give 3 examples of type a renal adverse effects.
gentamicin - sepsis
sulphonamides - RA
aspirin - CV disease
Give 2 examples of post renal effects.
methysergide - cluster headaches
chemotherapy - acute leukemias
What are 3 examples of Type B.
Bone marrow aplasia - chloramphenicol antibiotic
Hepatic necrosis - halothane
Do Type B reactions have a high mortality?
What type is associated with prolonged therapy?
Give 3 examples of type C effects.
Steroids - Cushings
Beta blockers - Diabetes
NSAIDs - hypertension
Can type C reactions be anticipated?
Give 2 examples of Type D effects.
Secondary malignancies post chemotherapy
Craniofacial abnormalities in children of women taking isotretinoin
What type is associated with withdrawal?
Give an example of a a rebound effect in Type E
beta blocker withdrawal - angina
Give an example of a loss of physiological coping in Type E
steroid withdrawal and Addisonian crisis
Give an example of a mechanism dependent biological activity in Type E
anticonvulsant withdrawal/changes and epilepsy frequency
What does theophylline interact with?
What do statins interact with?
What do TCAs interact with?
type 1 anti arrythmics
ACE Is increase hypoglycaemic effect of what?