Flashcards in Histology of Renal System Deck (30):
What is the kidney covered by?
Name the site of entry of renal artery and exit of renal vein and ureter.
Is the medulla or cortex divided into smaller layers?
What is the nephron composed of?
renal corpuscle and the renal tubules.
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?
What is the renal corpsucle formed from?
the glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule
Name the cup of simple squamous epithelium at the blind end of the nephron which the capillaries invaginate into.
Name the tuft of capillaries and how it is suppleied.
supplied by afferent
drained by efferent
Name the two cell layers separate the blood from the glomerular filtrate.
the capillary endothelium and a specialised epithelium (podocytes)
What is found between two layers which is thicker than usual?
basal lamina, made up of a feltwork of GAGs
What do mesangial cells produce?
connective tissue layer called mesangium
Function of mesangial cells?
several functions, including support and removal of debris
Where is the loop of Henle?
What type of lining does the loop of Henle have?
squamous lining in which the nuclei typically protrude into the lumen
What type of lining covers the transition to the thick ascending limb?
cuboidal epithelial cells with abundant mitochondria
What does this describe: Thin walled blood vessels dip down into the medulla from above and then climb back up to the cortex?
Where are the distal convoluted tubules found?
Describe the difference histologically between the proximal and distal convuluted tubules.
both lined by simple cuboidal epithelium, however unlike the proximal convoluted tubules, those of the DCT lack a brush border of extensive microvilli.
What is the lining of the collecting ducts?
a simple columnar epithelium
What are longitudinal section of collecting ducts often referred to?
ducts of bellini
What are the three components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
The macula densa.
The juxtaglomerular cells.
The extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells)
What are the modified smooth muscle cells in wall of the afferent arteriole, which contain/secrete renin?
Which cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus extend outside of the renal corpuscle?
extraglomerular mesangial cells/lacis cells
What is believed to be the function of the macula densa?
sensing ion composition in the DCT
What happens to the urine produced at the renal papilla?
collected into the minor calyx, flows into the major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter and then into the bladder. During voiding it flows into the urethra and exits the body
What are most of the conducting parts of the urinary tract lined by?
a special epithelium called transitional epithelium or urothelium
What are the cells at the luminal surface called?
What two facts explain the structure of the epithelium?
1) the variability in thickness of cells represents different states of distension, and
2) the apical surface of the cells at the surface have a thickened membrane to provide a highly impermeable barrier
What is below the specialised epithelium?
lamina propria and 2-3 layers of smooth muscle.