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Flashcards in Histology of Renal System Deck (30):
1

What is the kidney covered by?

collagen fibres.

2

Name the site of entry of renal artery and exit of renal vein and ureter.

hilium

3

Is the medulla or cortex divided into smaller layers?

medulla

4

What is the nephron composed of?

renal corpuscle and the renal tubules.

5

What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?

nephron

6

What is the renal corpsucle formed from?

the glomerulus and the Bowman’s capsule

7

Name the cup of simple squamous epithelium at the blind end of the nephron which the capillaries invaginate into.

Bowmans capsule

8

Name the tuft of capillaries and how it is suppleied.

glomerulus
supplied by afferent
drained by efferent

9

Name the two cell layers separate the blood from the glomerular filtrate.

the capillary endothelium and a specialised epithelium (podocytes)

10

What is found between two layers which is thicker than usual?

basal lamina, made up of a feltwork of GAGs

11

What do mesangial cells produce?

connective tissue layer called mesangium

12

Function of mesangial cells?

several functions, including support and removal of debris

13

Where is the loop of Henle?

medulla

14

What type of lining does the loop of Henle have?

squamous lining in which the nuclei typically protrude into the lumen

15

What type of lining covers the transition to the thick ascending limb?

cuboidal epithelial cells with abundant mitochondria

16

What does this describe: Thin walled blood vessels dip down into the medulla from above and then climb back up to the cortex?

vasa recta

17

Where are the distal convoluted tubules found?

cortex

18

Describe the difference histologically between the proximal and distal convuluted tubules.

both lined by simple cuboidal epithelium, however unlike the proximal convoluted tubules, those of the DCT lack a brush border of extensive microvilli.

19

What is the lining of the collecting ducts?

a simple columnar epithelium

20

What are longitudinal section of collecting ducts often referred to?

ducts of bellini

21

What are the three components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

The macula densa.
The juxtaglomerular cells.
The extraglomerular mesangial cells (or lacis cells)

22

What are the modified smooth muscle cells in wall of the afferent arteriole, which contain/secrete renin?

juxtaglomerular cells

23

Which cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus extend outside of the renal corpuscle?

extraglomerular mesangial cells/lacis cells

24

What is believed to be the function of the macula densa?

sensing ion composition in the DCT

25

What happens to the urine produced at the renal papilla?

collected into the minor calyx, flows into the major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter and then into the bladder. During voiding it flows into the urethra and exits the body

26

What are most of the conducting parts of the urinary tract lined by?

a special epithelium called transitional epithelium or urothelium

27

What are the cells at the luminal surface called?

umbrella cells

28

What two facts explain the structure of the epithelium?

1) the variability in thickness of cells represents different states of distension, and
2) the apical surface of the cells at the surface have a thickened membrane to provide a highly impermeable barrier

29

What is below the specialised epithelium?

lamina propria and 2-3 layers of smooth muscle.

30

In which urethra, the male or female, doesthe epithelium change from transitional to stratified squamous near its termination?

female