Clinical Descriptions in Renal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Clinical Descriptions in Renal Deck (46):
1

Non infective inflammation of glomerulus, can be primary or secondary

Glomerulunephritis

2

Bacterial infection of renal pelvis, calyces, tubule and interstitium

Pyelonephritis

3

What is the most common organism causing pyelonephritis?

E.coli

4

Tuberculous pyelonephritis?

haemotgenous spread, usually from lung, typical caeseating granulomatous formation

5

acute inflammation of bladder

cystitis

6

dilatation of pelvicalcyeal system, with parenchymal atrophy

hydronephrosis

7

Main causes of hydronephrosis?

urinary tract obstruction and reflux

8

abscence of one or both kidneys

agenesis

9

small kidneys but with normal developemtn

hypoplasia

10

Fusion at either pole (usually lower)

horseshoe kidney

11

Very common, usually doesnt cause any functional disease, often incidental finding

simple cysts

12

can be recessive or dominant (more common), causes renal enlargement and cysts

polycystic kidney disease

13

common, white nodules, medullary origin

fibroma

14

yellowish nodules, less than 2cm, cortical origin

adenoma

15

Mix of fat, muscle and blood vessels, can be multiple and bilateral, associated with tuberous scleoriris

angiomyolipoma

16

Production of renin causes secondary hypertension from this

JGCT

17

Production of renin causes secondary hypertension from this

JGCT (juxtaglomerular cell tumour)

18

tumour of renal pelvis and calcyces

urothelial carcinomas

19

commonest primary renal tumour in adults, more common in males, clear cell cancer

renal cell carcinoma

20

benign renal masses

oncocytoma

21

occurs in transitional epithelium, makes up 90% of bladder tumours

transitional cell tumours

22

extrovesion, glandular metplasia, urachal remnants

adenocarcinoma

23

commonest malignant bladder tumour in children

embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma

24

occurs in uncircumcised men, related to poort hygeine and HPV

SCC of penis

25

Complication of BPH, can be spontaneous or precipitated

acute urinary retention

26

dramatic urine output following obstruction

post-obstructive diuresis

27

formed when urine is supersaturated with salt and minerals

renal calculus

28

Most common in puberty, can occur with trauma or athletic activity, but usually random

torsion of spermatic cord

29

Rare in kids, may be difficult to distinguish from testicular torsion

epididymitis

30

often happens after foreskin is retracted for catherization and staff members forget to replace it

paraphimosis

31

prolonged erection (more than 4 hrs)

priapism

32

form of necrotizing fasciitis occuring in male genitals

Fournier's gangrene

33

acute necrotizing parenchymal and perirenal infection caused by gas forming uropathogens, usually e.coli, usually occuring in diabetics

emphysematous pyelonephritis

34

usually resulting from rupture of acute cortical abscess into perinephric space, or from haemotgenous spread from infection

perinephric abscess

35

injury commonly associated with pelvic fracture

bladder injury

36

injury associated with fracture of pubic rami

urethral injury

37

typically happens during intercourse, buckling injury when penis slips out of vagina and strikes pubic

penile fracture

38

Increase in size of prostate, without malignancy

BPH

39

Most common cancer affecting men in UK

prostate cancer

40

90% are transitional cell

bladder cancer

41

Pre malignant lesions causing white patches and fissuring etc at glans/prepuce

balanitis xerotica obliterans

42

Erythroplasia of glands, prepuce or shaft of penis

SCC of penis

43

urine leaking by extraurethral route

overflow incontinence

44

may be due to detrusor overactivity, causes frequency and small voided columes

urge incontinence

45

Urine leaks when there is increased abdo pressure, due to damaged floow or urethral

stress incontinence

46

combination of stress and urge incontinence

mixed incontinence