Flashcards in Age of Revolutions Deck (34)
What is Mercantilism?
A Country uses their colonies to make money for the mother country, by providing raw materials and buying finished goods
The Intolerable Acts were a response to what event?
Boston Tea Party
What were the Intolerable Acts?
-Boston Port Bill - Shut down Boston Harbor
-Massachusetts Government Act - Disbanded the elected governments
-Administration of Justice Act - Allowed British officials and troops who were accused of killing people to go to England for court instead of the colonies.
-Quartering Act - Colonists were forced to pay for British soldiers’ housing, including
According to John Locke, what is a government’s main concern?
To protect natural rights of their citizens
Explain how the Enlightenment ideas inspired the American Revolution.
John Locke thought that a government was only supposed to be around to protect natural rights, and if it didn’t it should be overthrown. England was only trying to make itself richer, and wasn’t protecting our rights (the Navigation Acts, the Stamp Act, not allowed us to govern ourselves, forcing us to house their troops, etc.)
In what ways can you still see the impact of the Enlightenment on the United States government?
We have a government that focuses on protecting its citizens’ happiness. Voting rights, freedoms of speech religion, press, etc. 3 branches of government, trial by jury, no illegal search and seizure, capitalism.
What is an Estate?
French social system/classes
What things did the first and second estates have in common?
Both had political power and were very wealthy, but did not pay any taxes
What were the professions and sizes of the 1st and 2nd estates?
1st - 1%, Priests
2nd - 2% Royalty
What is the only quality that all 3rd estate members shared?
None had political power, and they all had to pay taxes
How large was the 3rd estate, and what kind of jobs did these people have?
17% were in the “upper 3rd” and were merchants, doctors, lawyers, business owners, etc.
80% were poor peasant farmers
Describe the living conditions for the peasants. Give specific examples.
They lived in one room houses with dirt floors, mud walls, and thatch roofs.
They were usually hungry, and frequently starved if the weather was not good
They usually had one or two sets of clothes, and had to make everything they had in the home
Worked from sun up to sundown every day but Sunday
What are five words that would describe the lifestyle of the second class, especially Louis and Marie Antoinette?
Answers may vary (Rich, Expensive, Unnecessary, Unequal, “Over the top”, etc)
How did Enlightenment ideas helped bring about the French Revolution?
John Locke thought that a government was only supposed to be around to protect natural rights, and if it didn’t it should be overthrown. French peasants were only used to make the king richer, and the government was taking away the rights of the peasants. (Taking their food, no freedoms of speech or religion, executing peasants without a trial for small crimes.)
In what TWO ways the did the American Revolution help to cause the French Revolution?
-France spent so much money helping us, that they ruined their own economy
-The successes of our revolution, and the government that followed were an inspiration to France
What are 3 economic problems that France had before the Revolution?
-The government was bankrupt, and had already taxed the 3rd estate the limit
-France helped the colonists in the American Revolution
-Too much money spent by Louis and Marie Antoinette (the King and Queen)
In what ways was King Louis to blame for the French Revolution?
-Had lousy leadership
-Wasn’t interested in ruling the country
-Never did anything about the economy until it was too late
What was the final trigger that started the French Revolution?
A drought killed crops, making bread too expensive to buy
Who did the Jacobins blame for the problems in France?
What did the new Jacobin-led government promise to do in France?
They were going to have the most “Enlightenment” government ever. All based on science, and equality.
What was Maximilien Robespierre able to do because he was the head of the Commission of Public Safety?
allowed him to decide who was an “Enemy of the revolution”
What happened to religion after the French Revolution?
Tried to erase Catholicism and start a “Religion of VIRTUE”
What was the French army used for during the Reign of Terror?
They were used to tax people’s food and land
How many people ended up being killed during the Reign of Terror? How many were peasants?
40,000 and about 85% came from the 3rd estate
What happened to Robespierre?
After he turned on his own inner circle, he was accused of being an enemy of the revolution and was beheaded
Was the French Revolution a success?
Serves us a lesson on how DEMOCRACY can go wrong
KNOWLEDGE must not be replaced with FEAR and IGNORANCE
Protection for the MINORITY and OPPOSITION is crucial
Describe the social classes in South America before the Enlightenment.
NATIVE peoples and AFRICAN slaves were the lowest class of people
They had no RIGHTS and were treated terribly
Europeans were WEALTHY and controlled the entire continent
What were the Haitians fighting for in their revolution?
Where did Toussaint L’ouverture get his ideas that he used in the Haitian rebellion?
They were the same ideas as the French Revolution, Enlightenment ideas