Flashcards in Age of Enlightenment Deck (20)
Describe the daily life of a peasant.
Peasants lived on land owned by a ruler, and farmed most days in order to survive. They ate what they grew, and were at the mercy of the weather. Most were incredibly poor, had very few rights, and made almost everything they owned.
What type of governing structure was used during the dark ages?
What is absolute rule?
A government where the ruler had total authority, and there were no limits on what they were allowed to do.
What was “Divine Right?”
Kings get to rule because “God said so”
What was the role of the Catholic Church?
-The Catholic Church decided who got to be a king or queen.
-They could keep being king as long as their people were Catholic, they paid the church . If a King didn’t do that, they would replace him
How did we gather information before the Scientific Revolution?
All knowledge came from the ancient Greeks and Romans or the Bible
What concepts were discovered during the Scientific Revolution?
The Earth rotates around the sun, the body is made of cells, scientific method, etc.
How did we gather information AFTER the Scientific Revolution?
We tested our ideas, and came to conclusions about the world based on the research
How did the Scientific Revolution weaken the Catholic Church?
Some of the teachings of the Catholic Church began to be proven incorrect by science, and people began to question more and more of the teachings
How did the Catholic church respond to the Scientific Revolution ?
They threatened, tortured, or killed scientists who refused to take back their research.
In your own words, describe what the Enlightenment was.
The Enlightenment was an explosion of ideas that focused on individual rights, better government, and science
Describe what is meant by natural laws.
The idea that certain rights are given to us by nature/God, and they shouldn’t be ever taken away by a government
What are the three Natural Rights? Explain each one
-Life - Your right to be alive
Liberty - Your right to do whatever you want, as long as it doesn’t hurt others
-Property - Your right to own and control things, and no one can take them from your without permission
What is a social contract?
The agreement that citizens would give up some rights and accept the government as legitimate in order for the government to maintain control
During the dark ages, whose happiness was the most important? Afterwards?
Kings and Queens, afterwards it was the common people
What new ideas were there about how governments should be run?
Citizens should vote on their leaders, 3 branches of government, citizens should have the right to a fair trial, free speech, religious freedoms, women should be treated as equals according to the law
According to John Locke, what is a government’s main concern?
If a government doesn’t protect natural rights, they should be overthrown
Why would Kings of Europe hate John Locke’s ideas?
They did not want to protect rights, and John Locke was urging people to overthrow them
What are the basic ideas of capitalism?
People should own and control all businesses, with government only setting ground rules to make it fair. The businesses would rely on the “invisible hand” to make their decisions.