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What was the Cold War?

A period of conflict between the Soviet Union and the US that did not ever break into full scale war


What is the difference between cold and hot wars?

Cold wars use only words, hot wars use weapons


What caused the Cold War?

The USSR wanted to turn other countries Communists as a way to protect themselves from future wars, and the US wanted to stop communism from spreading.


What is containment?

This is how the US was going to stop the spread of communism.


What was US plan for containment?

We would use either money or fighting to stop communism anywhere it sprang up throughout the world.


What was USSR plan for containment?

They would try to get countries to become communist


What was NATO?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This was a group of friendly countries who promised to protect each other from the spread of communism and the Soviet Union


What was Warsaw Pact?

This was the alliance of communist countries and was controlled by the Soviet Union.


How was the following events part of containment?
-Cuban missile crisis

The Soviets tried to ship nuclear weapons to communist Cuba, and we refused to let the ships in


How was the following events part of containment?
-Vietnam war

The communist North Vietnamese and Vietcong, backed by the Soviet Union, were fighting to control the capitalist South Vietnam. The US backed the South to stop the whole country from becoming communist.


How was the following events part of containment?
-Korean war

The communist North, backed by communist China, were fighting to control the capitalist South Korea. The US backed the South to stop the whole country from becoming communist.


How was the following events part of containment?
-Marshall plan

When countries in Europe began to seeing a rise in communism in their own countries, the US gave them billions of dollars to improve their country so communism would seem less appealing.


How was the following events part of containment?
-Berlin airlift

The Soviet Union cut off water, electric, and trade to West Berlin, and dared the US to do something about it. Instead of fighting, we flew in all the supplies the country would need for an entire year.


What was the Arms Race?

Both the Soviets and the Americans were both worried the other would build superior weapons which could destroy whole countries
The United States and the Soviet Union began building more nuclear weapons and ways to deliver them


What is Mutually Assured Destruction?

- If one country attacks the other, the response would ensure both sides are destroyed
-Neither side wanted to attack because of this


Explain two parts of Butter Battle.

-Butter difference- Communism or Capitalism
-M.A.D. policy- did not want to drop their bomb at the end
-Wall that divided them- Berlin Wall
-Arms Race- building up their weapons to be better than each others


How was the Space Race an effect of the arms race?

- The race to come up with ways to deliver the nuclear weapons led to the Space Race
-The Space Race turned into a scientific battle
-Missiles led to rockets which could reach space
-The Soviets launched the first satellite “Sputnik” which set of a frenzy in the United States
-Ended with the US landing on the moon
-This race to led all sorts of new technology


What is decolonization?

Former colonies that were formed during Imperialism times started to push back and gain independence to rule themselves.


Explain each of the causes for decolonization.
Colonial nationalism

-Many natives fought for the European countries in WWII to try and gain freedom.

-Groups formed in colonies to push for natives to rule their own countries.


Explain each of the causes for decolonization.
-Cost of colonies

-After WW2, European countries did not have the money needed to deal with these nationalist movements.

-Wars and violent rebellions were expensive, and the European public was not ready to back more wars around the globe.


Explain each of the causes for decolonization.
-Pressure from US/USSR

- US
After WW2, the idea of freedom and equality because accepted as the norm.
We pressured our friends to put that idea into practice by treating the colonies the same

Communism preaches about equality of the working class, and urged nationalist leaders to rise up against their “rich, capitalist rulers”


What methods of nonviolent resistance did Gandhi use in India?

How Boycotts Work:

-Refused to buy British made goods so that British companies started losing money

How Non-violence and Civil Disobedience works:

-Openly refuse to obey laws you think are unjust, and accept the punishment without violence
-Makes the government look like the aggressor, not you
-When a whole country refuses to go along with your plans it becomes impossible


Why did India partition into different countries?

The two dominant religions in the Indian colony wanted their own countries that would be run according to their own beliefs.


What issues resulted from the partition of India?

- The British did not force the people to move to the new areas, but the social pressure was immense

-Those who did not move faced violence and discrimination

-The giant migration caused violence during the move

-The lack of planning led to homelessness and poverty in the new areas

-The region of Kashmir was supposed to be settled on their own

-It led to violence and that is still going on today


How did the end of imperialism negatively affect countries in Africa?

- When the imperialist countries left the colonies, they did not leave a functioning government behind

-The countries are almost always poor because they lost out on the use of their resources

-Genocides and wars are still going on today in regions
-Rwanda Genocide movie


What is appeasement?

diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.


What are the four reasons why Europe allowed appeasement?

- The Allied Powers were in the depths of the Great Depression, and did not have the money to be
involved in another war.

-The memory of World War 1 was still fresh, and none of the world wanted to do that again.

-They were trying to convince themselves that Hitler’s demands were reasonable, and hoped he would be satisfied if he got what he wanted

-The militaries of the Allied countries were still recovering from WWI


What was the consequence of appeasement for the Allies?

- Allowed Hitler to control a larger population to use as an army

-Allowed Hitler to control a more people to tax and gather wealth from

-Made Hitler seem invincible to his own people, so they bought into him as a leader

-Allowed the Germans to control areas with tons of resources like iron, coal, and agricultural land


Who are the Allied Powers?

Britain, France, the United States, Soviet Union


Who are the Axis Powers?

Germany, Japan