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Flashcards in Air Quality and Pollution Deck (67):
1

A human breathes an average of how much air per day

35 lbs per day

2

Atmosphere composition
78% -
21% -
0.97% -
0.03% -

Nitrogen
Oxygen
Ozone (O3) and CO2
Other Gases

3

Is there earth an open or closed system

A closed system. Very little outside elements exit or enter the atmosphere.

4

The only major force that enters the earth's atmosphere is

Sunlight

5

Is most air pollution man made or natural?

Man made. Some natural pollution occurs such as pollen pollution.

6

What is the greenhouse effect

AKA Global Warming.

Occurs when there is no longer an equilibrium between the amount of CO2 in the ocean and in the atmosphere.

When there is more CO2 in the atmosphere than in the ocean. More CO2 in the atmosphere draws in more sunlight to the atmosphere and it gets trapped.

7

Where is the ozone layer?

What is the benefit of the ozone layer?

Ozone lies high in the earths atmosphere.

It helps deflect away the majority of the sun's harmful rays.

8

What are fluorocarbons and what are their effect on the atmosphere

Gases prevalent in refrigerants, aerosol cans etc.

They can accumulate and deplete the ozone layer thus allowing more harmful energy from the sun into the atmosphere.

9

What is the real danger of the greenhouse effect

The melting of polar ice caps. The world could end up totally submersed with 20 feet of water.

10

99% of the earths atmosphere is within what distance?

Within 20 miles

11

What are the layers of the atmosphere and their altitudes

TMST
Thermosphere > 50miles/80 km
Mesopause
Mesosphere > 30miles/50 km
Stratopause
Stratosphere > 12 miles/20 km
Tropopause
Troposphere

12

Low pressure system

Air currents move counter clockwise.

Air rises up and cools.

Usually results in precipitation or cloudy day.

"cyclonic condition"

13

High pressure system

Air mass moves clockwise, anticyclonic condition
Sunny, clear days

14

What is a thermal inversion and what are the three types

When a layer of warm air settles over a layer of cooler air that lies near the ground. The warm air holds down the cool air and prevents pollutants from rising and scattering.

Valley inversion

Radiation Inversion

Subsidence Inversion (Los Angeles)

15

Smog

Fog or haze combined with smoke and other atmospheric pollutants

16

Photochemical Smog

Type of smog found in LA from auto and industrial emissions which result in high emissions of nitrogen oxides.

NO combine with O2 and UV light to form NO2

Brown haze

17

How is ozone created

(O3) is created naturally by lightning storms and artificially by the photochemical smog.

Can cause shortness of breath, and aging effects

18

What are some of the by products of photochemical smog

ozone, nitrous oxide, PAN, oxygen and nitrogen oxides

19

Sulfur oxides and acid rain

Formed from burning sulfur latent coal.

Can form "acid rain" when sulfur oxides combines with moisture to form Sulfuric Acid H2SO4

20

Hazards of nitrogen oxides

nitrogen dioxide is more toxic than nitric oxide.

They are respiratory irritants and can cause pulmonary edema and death.

21

What is a PAN

Peroxyacetetyl nitrite is a form of air pollution from the photochemical smog. It causes eye irritation.

22

Air pollution can cause or worsen some of the following diseases

chronic bronchitis

emphysema

lung cancer

23

What can plants tell us about air pollution

Can tell us the type of pollutants in the environment. Air pollution can be detrimental to plants and leave distinctive markings characteristic of the particular pollutant

24

How can water heaters contribute to pollution

They can increase nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide.

Check for tight fitting vent system, pressure relief valve, proper strapping, carbon buildup

25

5 types of particulates and notate if they are solids or liquids

Dusts, smoke, mists (L) , aerosols (L) , fumes

26

Dust Hazards - Size of particles and associated diseases

10 microns or smaller Most damaging dust particles are 2.5 or smaller.

pneumoconiosis
black lung (coal miners)
silicosis - general term that just means particles inhaled in the lungs
siderosis - metal particles inhaled
asbestos - may not appear 15-20 years after exposure
cancers

27

Name three ways to control dust

bag houses, dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators

28

What is a smoke? What is the particle size of smoke

A solid particle in a gas. .1 micron or smaller

29

Name 5 types of smoke

coal smoke - carbon in hydrocarbon gas
wood smoke - cellulose ash particles
chemical smoke - military purposes
metallic smoke(AKA fume)- zinc/tin smelters
cigarette smoke - nicotine, tar, benzopyrene and others

30

What is a fume

smoke-like emanation from the surface of heated metals

31

Aerosols vs. Mists

Aerosols - smaller liquid droplets that suspend in air over long times

Mists - larger liquid drops that fall quickly

32

What is the oldest pollution measuring device

The ringleman scale (measures smoke opacity)

33

What is the purpose of a catalytic converter

To convert unburned fossil fuel by products such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides into carbon dioxide, water vapor and nitrogen.

the catalyst is the heated metals

34

What are draeger tubes

AKA absorption tubes - measures the concentration of a gas

35

What is an anemometer

A ventilation capacity meter, CFM, used in exhaust vent (make up air)

36

What is litmus paper

most common type of test paper, e.g. chlorine test strips

Test papers can also be used for toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide

37

What is a velometer

Measures air speed (ft/min) used in air curtains

38

Name the three categories of air pollutants

organic gases, inorganic gases, particulate matter

39

Organic Gases as air pollutants

Hydrocarbons, usually produced from gasoline from vehicles

The hydrocarbons then react with the atmosphere to product photochemical smog

40

Inorganic gases as air pollutants

Nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and carbon monoxide

combustion pollutants

41

How is carbon monoxide formed

From the incomplete combustion (oxidation) of hydrocarbons

42

What is the federal clean air act

it established the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six pollutants

43

What 6 pollutants does the air quality standard address

PM10 - Particulate matter 10 microns or less
O3 - Ozone
Pb - Lead
SO2 - Sulfur dioxide
CO - Carbon Monoxide
NO2 - Nitrogen dioxide

44

What are two methods to measure ozone

chemiluminescence and UV light absorption

45

What method is used to measure nitrogen oxides

Chemiluminescence

46

What method is used to measure hydrocarbons

Flame ionization (measures the current produced as air passes through flame)

47

How is carbon monoxide measured

With infrared energy

48

How is sulfur dioxide measured

With colorimetric method

49

What are two environmental factors that effect air pollution

meteorological factors - wind, precipitation, pressure

topographical factors - hills, valley, manmade features

50

What is an intertial separator

A control device for removing particulate matter. includes single cyclone, high efficiency cyclone and multiple cyclone separators

51

What is a wet collection device

used to collect particulate matter

e.g. scrubbers, spray chambers, wet filters

52

How does gas adsorption work

with activated carbon or silica gel etc.

53

How does gas absorption work

by dissolving gases with a liquid solvent (water, ethanol or benzene)

54

The MOST likely cause of photochemical smog is due to which of the following?

Large Industries
Chemical Processing Plants
Hazardous Waste Incinerators
Heavy motor vehicle traffic

Heavy motor vehicle traffic

55

The industries LEAST likely to be a source of sulfur dioxide pollution are:

Metal smelters
Coal and oil burning power plants
refineries
hazardous waste incinerators

hazardous waste incinerators

56

Scrubbers are wet collectors generally used to remove particles that form as a:

dust, aerosol, or fog
mist, solid, or vapor
fog, mist, or dust
fume, dust or mist

fog, mist or dust

57

Particle size selective inlets are used to separate particulates above and below 2 to 3 microns in size on:

high volume samplers
outfall vacuums
baghouse air filters
atmospheric respirator sieves

high volume samplers

58

When two pollutants are combined, the effect are greater than the sum of the individual effects. This is called:

commensalism
syngerism
magnification
multiplication

synergism

59

Which component of clean, dry air has the smallest volume?

Carbon monoxide
Nitrogen dioxide
ammonia
sulfur dioxide

sulfur dioxide

60

Ozone reduces the useful life of all of the following except:

rubber
textiles
dyes
nylon

nylon

61

Major effects on humans are caused by the Los Angeles and London type smog, alone with which two pollutants:

sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride
sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide
hydrogen sulfide and peroxacyl nitrates
ozone and nitrogen dioxide

sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride

62

Photochemical smog has been reported in congested areas with:

large industries
chemical processing plants
industries processing hazardous wastes
high motor vehicle traffic

high motor vehicle traffic

63

What type of air pollution causes bleaching of leaves in plants?

PAN
sulfur dioxide
industries processing hazardous wastes
high motor vehicle traffic

sulfur dioxide

64

Which of the following are NOT major sources of sulfur dioxide pollution?

metal smelters
coal and oil burning power plants
refineries
electric substations

electrical substations

65

Which of the following is not a malodorous gas?

sulfur dioxide
hydrogen sulfide
carbon monoxide
phenol

carbon monoxide

66

What size particle can reach the lowest parts of the lung?

15 microns
50 microns
3 microns
any size particle

3 microns

67

What does a windrose measure?

wind speed and direction