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Flashcards in Food Science Deck (226):
1

A human consumes on average ____ lbs of food per day

1.5 lbs per day

2

Name the bacterial growth phases

Lag - adapt to environment
Log - exponential growth, doubling in numbers every few minutes
Stationary - nutrients depleted, equal death and growth
Decline/Death - running out of nutrients or being poisoned by their own waste products, they die off.

3

The goal of food preservation is to extend which phase of bacterial growth?

Extend the lag phase

4

What are the bacterial growth factors?

FATTOM
Food
Acidity
Time
Temperature
Oxygen
Moisture

5

What are the three temperature zones of bacteria?

Thermophillic - 113-158F
Mesophillic - 59-112F
Psychrophillic - 35-50F

6

What is thermophillic spoilage

Spoilage by thermophillic bacteria which can survive foods that are just slightly under cooked.

7

What is flat sour spoilage?

When bacteria that thrive inside canned foods do not produce gases but instead produce lactic acid.

Cans will not appear swollen. Food will have a sour taste.

Found in:

Low acid foods
Facultative Bacteria
Bacteria commonly found on canning machines
In sugars and starches used for canning

8

Bacillus coagulans is an example of what type of spoilage?

Flat Sour Spoilage

9

What is thermophillic anaerobe spoilage

bacteria survives an anaerobic state and produces h2S gas, Hydrogen gas, CO2 as it ferments. Forms lactic acid.

Not poisonous, but produces resistant spores that are heat activated.

Clostridium thermosaccarolyliticum.

Only a problem if cans are stored in very hot environment. They often burst.

10

What is the sulfide stinker bacteria?

Clostridium nigrificans.

Found in low acid canned foods.

result of undercooking.

bacteria produce H2S gas and discoloration of food product.

11

What is mesophillic spoilage - give three bacteria examples.

bacteria that grow at room temperature rage.

clostridium botulinum
clostridium sporogenes
clostridium putrifaciens

they produce CO2 and H gas.

Cause canned products to swell or buldge.

undercooked food products.

12

What is psychrophilic spoilage

Bacteria that can grow at colder temperatures.

Foods can spoil in freezers that are not cold enough.

optimal freezer temp is 0F

At 0F all the water in food product is iced and the bacterial has no available water for growth.

13

What is pH?

The relative alkalinity or acidity. It's based on the hydrogen ion concentration within a solution.

14

Bacteria commonly involved in food borne illness tend to grow at what pH range?

4.6 to 7

15

Typically food items w/ a pH less than _____ can be excluded as a potentially hazardous food

less than 4.6

16

Examples of high acid foods 4.5 and below

Apples, grapefruit, grapes, limes, oranges, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums

17

Examples of medium acid foods 4.5-5.5

Tomatoes, bananas, beets, squash, watermelon

18

Examples of low acid foods 5.5 and higher

peas, spinach, corn, beans, asparagus, brussel sprouts, cabbage, carrots, celery, onions, potatoes

19

What does sous vide mean?

"sue-veed" is a French term that means "excluding the air from the product".

commonly known as vacuum packing.

makes for a great environment for anaerobic bacteria.

20

What is oxidation-reduction food preservation

In vacuum packing when a small amount of air with chemicals is added to counteract the negative anaerobic environment.

oxidants such as nitrates and permanganates are used.

This creates an environment in which neither anaerobes or aerobes can survive.

21

Most bacteria that cause food borne illness tend to grow in what temperature range?

41 to 135 (the temperature danger zone)

22

Water activity (Aw) must be at what level to support bacterial growth on food?

.85 or higher (the scale is 0 to 1.0)

23

What type of food do bacteria typically require?

nutrients such as proteins and carbohydrates

24

What is the Aw for the following foods

fresh meat/fish/poultry
Fruits/veggies
Cheese
Cured Meat
Jams/Jellies
Cereal
Sugar

fresh meat/fish/poultry .99
Fruits/veggies .98
Cheese .97
Cured Meat .90
Jams/Jellies .82
Cereal .15
Sugar .20

25

Which pathogen is the most moisture durable? Tested to be able to grow at .86 Aw

staph aureus

26

The ideal moisture level for most bacteria is between?

.90-.99

27

What are the two most important factors in regards to FATTOM bacterial growth

Time and Temperature

28

What is ptomaine poisoning

a term to describe food borne illness prior to the discovery of bacteria. it was though that certain alkaloids produced by decaying food is what caused food borne illness

29

Hot foods must cool from ______ to ______ within __ hours and then from ______ to ______ within __ hours

135 to 70 in 2 hours

70 to 41 in 4 hours

30

Foods prepared at room temperature must be cooled to _____ in ___ hours

41 in 4 hours

31

What are methods of properly cooling food

cut large mass into smaller pieces

increase surface area by using shallow pans

do not fully cover products during cooling (keeps the heat in)

use stainless steel for cooling (plastic retains heat longer)

ice baths

cooling wand/ice paddles

adding ice as an ingredient

blast chillers (expensive units)

steam-jacketed kettles - cold water circulates. good for the first part of cooling

32

How should shallow pans be arranged in a walk in cooler for cooling?

never on top of one another. they should be separated so cool air can cover as much surface area as possible

33

Hot holding temperature should be _____ and above

135 and above

34

Does hot holding destroy bacteria?

No it just slows their growth

35

What types of equipment can be used for hot holding?

steam table, baine marie, steam cabinets and sometimes a broiler on a stove

36

Is there a time limit to hot holding?

No but usually the food quality is degraded after so long

37

Cold holding temperature

41 and below

38

Does cold holding kill bacteria?

No it slows their growth

39

What are some methods of food preservation that are based on available water in foods

sun drying
salting
smoking
mechanical drying
freeze drying

40

How does smoking preserve food?

by increasing the sodium content making less water available. It's a short term preservation method. a couple of days to a few weeks.

41

How does freeze drying work?

frozen products are placed into a vacuum where heat is applied which causes sublimation (water goes from solid ice to gas phase). Because of the vacuum the water vapor is removed from the product.

42

What are the pro's and con's to freeze drying

pros: taste of food is not altered, can easily be rehydrated. product is very light weight.

cons: vitamin c and carotene are destroyed

43

freeze drying usually results in what Aw

.06

44

What are cans made of today?

steel with a resin (bpa) coating to fill in any microscopic holes.
sometimes there is a layer of steel but the steel has a tendency to react with acidic foods

45

When did the US stop using lead soldered cans?

1991

46

What are the steps in canning (green beans)

1. sort to eliminate damaged or spoiled product
2. washed/soaked in cool water
3. blanched with hot steam or water (helps remove air pockets)
4. cooked for 35 mins to a pressurized temperature of 240F to kill botulism spores
5. cooled in cold water
6. Water or broth is added to the can
7. filled can is now "exhausted" by reheating to eliminate air or gas
8. can is covered, sealed and cooled

47

What are some common problems with canned foods

undercooking prior to canning
improperly cooling which causes hydrogen gas to form inside
damaged cans
storing cans in high heat (over 100F)

48

What is a food additive

any substance that—directly or indirectly—becomes a component or otherwise affects the characteristics of any food. This definition includes any substance used in the production, processing, treatment, packaging, transportation or storage of food.

other e.g. color modifiers, flavor enhancers, nutritional supplements, moisture controllers, chemicals to alter physical characteristics etc.

49

Many food additives have been found to be ______________

carcinogenic or toxic

50

What is GRAS

Generally regarded as safe

51

Are food additives on the GRAS list?

most are not

52

What is DES

diethylstillilotral aka DES white. Is an odorless, crystalline powder that use to be given to roosters to decrease their sex drive and fatten them up.

it was found to be toxic and carcinogenic.

use is now banned.

53

What was food dye #8 used for?

to mark inspected meat products. Was found to be carcinogenic

54

What is aminotruazole

a weed killing agent that when consumed by livestock was present in their meat. Found to be carcinogenic

55

What are nitrates and nitrites used for?

As a common food additive to help preserve meats and meat products such as bacon and sausages.

to stop the growth of botulism

56

How do meat processors hide spoiled meat be preventing it from browning?

They add sodium nitrate which prevents the oxidation of myoglobin, thus keeping the meat red.

aka "dynamiting" making it look fresher than it is

57

What are nitrosamines?

A byproduct that is formed when humans ingest nitrates or nitrites. It is considered a carcinogen.

58

What can cause blue baby syndrome?

When a baby consumes nitrates and they are reduced to nitrites which blocks the oxidation of hemoglobin.

59

What are direct additives

those that are added to a food for a specific purpose in that food.” For example, using phosphates in meat and poultry products to retain moisture and protect the flavor.

60

What are indirect additives?

those that become part of the food in trace amounts due to its packaging, storage or other handling

e.g. BPA

61

What is MSG

monosodium glutamate - a flavor enhancer and meat tenderizer

made from beet glucose that has been decomposed by bacteria and ferments MSG

many are allergic

caused cancer in lab rats

"Chinese restaurant syndrome"

62

What is EDTA

ethylene diamine tetra acetate

food additive to prevent botulism growth.

it's a sequestering agent (ties up certain minerals)

can contribute to food discoloration

63

What are sulfites used for?

an additive to preserve freshness and prevent discoloration. it stops the enzyme reaction in fruits and vegetables

illegal for restaurants to add.

64

What is TSP?

trisodium phosphate

preservative in some fruits which injures the cell wall

65

What is calcium propionate used in?

a preservative used in breads

66

Name a metal that can be added as a food preservative

silver

67

What three risk factors are checked for food additives

carcinogenic factors
toxicity
side effects

an additive can still be used if it falls into one of the three categories

68

What is foodborne illness?

any syndrome resulting from the ingestion of food

69

What are the three classifications of foodborne illness?

foodborne intoxication
foodborne infections
toxin-mediated foodborne infection

70

What is foodborne intoxication

illness caused by eating food containing poisonous chemicals or toxins (either chemically or bacteriologically produced)

71

What are three e.g. of foodborne intoxication

staph aureus
bacillus cereus
clostridium botulinum

72

What is a foodborne infection

an illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms

73

What are three e.g. of bacteria that cause foodborne infection

salmonella typhi
campylobacter jujeni
listeria

74

What is a toxin-mediated foodborne infection

an illness caused by eating food containing live pathogenic organisms that reproduce within the intestines and produce a toxin which makes one ill

75

What are three e.g. of toxin-mediated foodborne infections

e coli 0157 h7
clostridium perfringens
shiga-toxin producing e coli

76

While interviewing a potential foodborne illness you should find out the food eaten within the last_____ hours prior to the onset of symptoms

72 hours

77

Where do most foodborne illness occur?

In the home

78

Chemical food poisonings usually have (fast/slow) onset of symptoms

fast

79

the following chemicals can cause chemical food poisonings how...

arsenic
cadmium
lead
sodium fluoride
Freon
bleach
copper

arsenic - insecticide residual
cadmium - lemonade leached containers
lead - ceramics, insecticides
sodium fluoride - insecticide
Freon - leaky air conditioning units
bleach - spill or accidental use
copper - old soda beverage dispensers

80

What is PSP

paralytic shellfish poisoning

a type of chemical food poisoning (foodborne intoxication)

the toxin is Gonyaulax c. which is very potent.

The shellfish carry this toxin after consuming dinoflagellates (ocean algae) during red tide summer season

cooking does not destroy

can cause paralysis or death

81

What is scromboid poisoning

a chemical food poisoning (foodborne intoxication)

scromboid species that are held at improper temps will have bacteria that produce histamines (the toxin)

symptoms include burning peppery taste, rash, dizziness, cramps etc.

cooking does not kill

82

What is a histamine

a toxin produced by scromboid fish held improperly

83

What are some of the scromboid species (name 6)

tuna, mackerel, bonitos, swordfish, bluefish, skipjack

84

scromboid poisoning has also been found it which species that are not part of the scromboid family

mahi-mahi, marlin, sardines

85

What percentages of fat are in regular, lean and extra lean hamburger meat

regular - not more than 30%
lean grade - no more than 22%
extra lean grade - no more than 15%

86

Fresh beef should be....

bright red in color
firm and elastic to touch (spring back)
light fresh odor
marked for USDA inspection
received at 41 or below

87

Fresh pork should be...

pink in color
firm and elastic to touch
light fresh odor
marked for USDA inspection
received at 41 or below

88

Fresh poultry should be...

almost white with no dark discoloration
no noticeable odor
flesh should NOT be sticky
marked for USDA inspection
received at 41 or below

89

Fresh fish should be...

bright red gills
clear eyes
Firm and elastic to touch
no fish odor
received between 32 and 41 packed on ice
should not be slimy, skin should reflect light

90

Shellfish include...

oysters, clams and mussels

91

Fresh shelf fish should be...

shells should be closed
light seawater smell
shellstock identification tag
received between 32 and 41

92

shellstock identification tags should indicate:

harverster ID number
date of harvest
harvest location
type and quality of shell fish

must be kept for 90 days

93

display tanks of shellfish need to be operated under what?

a HACCP plan

94

crustacea include...

shrimp, crab, lobster

95

Crustacea should be...

received alive and on ice between 32 and 41
light sea water smell
shells should be hard

96

Raw eggs should be...

clean and intact
firm yolks and whites that cling to the yolks
marked for USDA inspection
received at 45 or below
packaging must indicate if pasteurized

97

Dairy products must be received...

at 41 or below
liquid milk must be pasteurized and marked as grade A

98

Can full frozen raw animal foods be stored with full frozen ready to eat foods?

yes

99

What can malachite green be used for?

to test for sodium nitrate in a product

100

What is a cryoscope used for?

to detect the freezing point of milk to determine if water was illegally added to increase product volume

101

What does the babcock test, test for?

for milk fast content

102

What is truth in menu

a quality control check to see if a menu items are what are actually being served

103

Vending Machine Requirements (for potentially hazardous food vending machines)

1. owner name, address, phone number posted
2. no wet storage of prepackaged items
3. single use articles must be packaged for protection
4. cleaning/sanitizing records available for past thirty days
5. machine must be NSF or equal
6. if outside overhead protection required
7. if outside must have a self closing dispenser door

104

What happens if a vending machine falls out of temperature?

It should have an automatic mechanism or switching device that shuts it down from public access until it has been serviced.

105

What are some techniques used to mask the freshness of food

red display lights in meat case
red colored backing on container
adding blood to product to increase redness
adding excess water to increase weight

106

approximately how many death per year in the US are caused by foodborne illness?

5,000 deaths

107

The annual cost of foodborne illness in the US is between ___ and ___ dollars

10 and 83 billion dollars

108

What is a foodborne disease outbreak

the occurrence of two or more cases of similar illness from the ingestion of a common food

109

What are the four categories of a the highly susceptible population

young children
elderly
pregnant women
weakened immune systems

110

What is a pathogen?

a microorganism that can cause disease

111

PHFs are also known as ______

TCS - time/temperature control for safety foods

112

What are the five risk factors for foodborne illness

1. held at improper temperature
2. undercooked
3. contaminated food equipment
4. food from an unsafe source
5. poor personal hygiene

113

What is the warranty of sale

the right of the consumer to receive a safe product. an implied guarantee that the product sold was safe.

114

in order to win a lawsuit under consumer rights the plaintiff must prove what three things

1. food served to them was unsafe
2. food served caused them harm
3. food service operator violated the warranty of sale

115

What are critical control points

points during the cooking or processing of food where steps must be taken to eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level

116

What is the flow of food

the path that food takes through a food establishment from receiving, storage, preparation, cooking holding service, cooling and reheating.

117

How many illness in the US per year are foodborne?

76 million

118

What should be the primary goal of any food establishment

food safety

119

What is a food safety hazard

anything that may cause injury or illness if not controlled, reduced or prevented

120

what are the three categories of food safety hazards

physical
chemical
biological

121

What are physical hazards and some e.g.

foreign objects or particles

finger nails, glass, metal shavings, hair, dirt

122

what are chemical hazards and some e.g.

chemical substances included food additives/preservatives

pesticides
cleaning products
additives/preservatives
toxic metals

123

What are some toxic metals that can leach from cookware

copper, lead, zinc, brass, cadmium

124

galvanized utensils are coated with what

zinc

125

what is a food allergy

when the immune system reacts badly to a chemical or ingredient in food

126

what are the eight major food allergens

milk/milk products
eggs
fish
soy
shellfish
peanuts
tree nuts
wheat proteins

127

What are biological hazards

living organisms or waste products of living organisms

include bacti, fungi, parasties, viruses

128

can viruses reproduce in/on food?

no. they can only use food as a way to transfer form one person to another

129

What are parasites

small organisms that require a host. they can be destroyed by freezing.

130

What are fungi

a group of organisms including molds, yeasts and mushrooms

131

what are molds

fungi
spoilage organisms
appear fuzzy or slimy
prefer acidic, sweet, low water foods
bread, cheese, fruits/veggies

132

cook can destroy molds but not the _____ that some molds produce

toxins

133

what are yeasts

fungi
spoilage organism
prefer acidic, sweet, low water foods
honey, jam, syrup

134

which type of fungi is used in rising bread and making beer/wine

yeasts

135

What is ciguatera toxin

a biological toxin naturally occurring in some kinds of predatory reef fish.

ingestion cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, chills, blindness, hallucinations

may take weeks/months to recover

136

what are some of the reef fish that can have ciguatera toxin

amberjack, barracuda, grouper, snapper

137

What are some plant toxins that can cause illness

rhubarb leaves
jimsonweed
snakeroot (via cow milk)
rhododendron/mountain laurel (via honey)

138

what can happen from eating wild mushrooms

foodborne intoxication

139

_______ is parasite commonly associated with raw or undercooked seafood

anisakis simplex

140

What is the biggest threat to food safety?

microorganisms

141

What is jaundice

a common symptom of liver diseases such as hep a where the skin and eyes appear yellowish

142

What are the 5 illnesses that a food employee must report to the person in charge

norovirus
hep a
shigella
enterohemorrhagic or shiga-toxin producing e coli
salmonella typhi

143

Which illness must be reported by a food employee if they have had said illness within the past 3 months

salmonella typhi (if they haven't received ABs from a practitioner)

144

an employee was diagnosed with salmonella typhi 2 months ago and did not receive antibiotic treatment.

do they need to be restricted or excluded from working at a food facility?

they can be restricted except if the food establishment services a high risk population (then they must be excluded)

145

How do you restrict a food employee with an illness?

can't do jobs involving exposed food, clean equipment, utensils or linen, unwrapped single used items.

146

If one of the "big 5" illness are reported by a food employee what must the food establishment do?

report it to the health department.

maintain confidentiality of the food employee.

require a statement from a doctor prior to allowing the employee to come back to work.

147

can a food employee who is living with someone infected by one of the "big 5" illness work at a food facility?

yes unless they are serving high risk populations

148

a food employee with which illness must be excluded from serving a high risk population for 3 months

salmonella typhi

149

a food employee with which illnesses must be exluded from serving a high risk population for at least a month

shigella or shiga-toxin producing e coli

150

Can aids or hiv be transmitted through food?

no

151

effective handwashing takes at least ____ seconds and the follow steps are:

20 seconds

wet hands with warm running water
apply soap
rub hands together for 15 seconds
rinse off soap
dry with single use paper towels or warm air dryer
turn off faucet with papertowel

152

hand antiseptic

aka hand sanitizer.

may reduce living number of organisms but doesn't remove soil from the hands

153

what is the only jewelry allowed to be worn in a food establishment

plain wedding band

not even medical alert jewelry is allowed

154

a food employee using gloves must remove their gloves, wash their hands and put on a new pair:

a. when the gloves become soiled or torn
b. at least every 4 hours if performing the same continuous work
c. after handling any raw meat products
d. all of the above

d

155

What is reduced oxygen packaging

any food packaging that has some or all of the oxygen removed as part of the packaging process

156

what is vacuum packaging

food packaging that has all air removed before it is sealed, so that the package contains no air until the user opens it.

157

What is sous vide packaging

a type of vacuum packaging

158

What is MAP modified atmosphere packaging

a packaging process where air is replaced with a combination of air and other gases such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide.

e.g. hot dogs and deli meats

159

What is FIFO

first in first out. rotating products

160

cook temp required for shell eggs for immediate service and not for immediate service

145 for 15 seconds (immediate service)
155 for 15 seconds (not for immediate service)

161

Can you use unpasteurized eggs for hollandaise sauce?

no because the sauce is not heated to 145. Only use pasteurized eggs

162

cook temp for poultry and stuffed meats

165 for 15 seconds

163

cook temp for ground meats (not including ground poultry)

155 for 15 seconds

164

cook temp for pork, fish, beef, roasts, veal, lamb etc.

145 for 15 seconds

except whole roasts which require 145 for 4 minutes

165

required time for ground meats cooked at the following temperatures

145
150
155
158

145 - 3 mins
150 - 1 min
155 - 15 sec
158 - 1 second

166

what are the temperatures and times to cook raw meat, poultry, fish or eggs in a microwave?

165 then let stand for 2 minutes covered

167

left overs should be cooked to ___ for ____ seconds

165 for 15 seconds

168

What is non-continuous cooking

initially and partially cooking a food
cooling it
then final cook to 165

169

what are the freezing temperature and times for most raw fish

-4 at least 7 days
-31 at least 15 hours
-31 until solid then stored at -4 for 24 hours

170

does freezing fish kill bacteria?

no only parasites. the product must still be kept cold to prevent bacterial growth

171

probe thermometers are designed to be accurate within + or - ___ degrees

2

172

metal stemmed bi metallic thermometers have a scale from ___ to ____

0 to 220F

173

What are the four parts to probe thermometer

the head (the dial)
calibrating nut (to adjust)
stem (part inserted into food)
dimple (small indentation where the temperature is actually measured)

174

How to calibrate a thermometer using ice point method

1. fill cup with crushed ice
2. add cold water to a slushy consistency
3. place stem so dimple is submerged for at least 30 seconds
4. use pliers or a wrench to hold calibrating nut and turn the head so it reads 32F or 0

175

How to calibrate a thermometer using the boiling point method

1. bring container of water to a rolling boil
2. place stem so dimple is submerged for at least 30 seconds
3. use pliers or wrench to hold calibrating nut and turn dial to 212F or 100C

176

When should you always calibrate a thermometer

after it has been dropped

177

at higher altitudes does water boil at a higher or lower temperature?

at a lower temperature

178

PHF can be held no longer than 4 hours out of temperature control if the following 4 conditions are met

1. initial temp of 41 or 135
2. marked with time to be discarded
3. after the 4 hours it must be cooked to serve, served (if ready to eat) or discarded
4. unmarked items or items past their 4 hour time must be discarded

179

PHF can be held for 6 hours if the following 5 conditions

1. initial temp of 41 (except whole tomatoes to be cut)
2. food shall be monitored to ensure temp doesn't exceed 70
3. marked to indicate time to be discarded
4. food shall be cooked and served or discarded when reached the 6 hours or measured over 70
5. fun in unmarked containers is discarded

180

What are the 4 methods of proper thawing

1. in refrigerator protected from dripping
2. in microwave if immediately cooked after
3. as a part of the cooking process
4. under cool running water (70 or less) draining away from product

181

which types of seafood do the freezing requirements not apply to

molluscan shellfish, tuna, aquacultured fish, open water salmon

182

how long do freezing records need to be maintained for seafood

90 days beyond the sale of the fish

183

what are the date marking requirements for PHF ready to eat foods that are prepared at a food facility

items must be dated if held for more than 24 hours at a food establishment.

at 41 or below - 7 days
if equipment installed prior to the code that only holds 45 and below then food can be held for 4 days

day 1 is the day of preparation

184

what are the date marking requirements for PHF that are from food processing plant and used at a food facility

must be marked if held for more than 24 hours

day 1 is the day the package is opened

packages must be used by the manufactures used by date if it has one

otherwise discarding times are based on a local procedure by dates, cays of week or color coded marks

185

What is cross contamination

when a food item is exposed to a contaminant from another source

186

What are the three types of cross contamination

food to food
equipment to food
people to food

187

in what order should food be stored

bottom to top
poultry
ground meat
fish, pork, beef
soup, precooked meat
produce

188

What types of food can be returned/re-serviced

food that is dispensed in a way that is protected from contamination e.g. ketchup, steak sauce, wine

food that is in it's original unopened package such as saltines, salt or pepper

189

How often should temperatures be taken for items at a salad bar during cold holding

every two hours

190

how often should temperature be taken during hot holding

every 2 hours

191

How is the term contamination defined when used in connection with a communicable disease?

a. infection of an individual or animal with pathogenic organisms

b. presence of pathogenic agents on a surface, article, or substance

c. transfer of a vector, regardless of time or nature of the host

d. contact between two or more sources of infection

b.

192

What is the most common contributing factor to foodborne illness?

a. insect and rodent infestations

b. dirty equipment

c. incorrect labeling of containers

d. improper holding temperatures

d

193

Why are some foods classified as potentially hazardous?

a. they have a pH below 4.6

b. they have a water activity below .85

c. they support rapid growth of pathogenic microorganisms

d. they require rapid and thorough cooking

c

194

Which food doe snot require refrigeration below 41F

a. open container of garlic in oil

b. tofu

c. sliced/cut cantaloupe

d. ultra-pasteurized creamers

d

195

What is the best means of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms in fresh meat?

a. topical use of approved hypochlorite solutions

b. exposure to UV light for 30 minutes

c. chemical preservatives

d. adequate refrigeration and cleanliness

d

196

What is the maximum accumulated time that potentially hazardous foods can safely be exposed to the temperature danger zone?

a. 2 hours

b. 4 hours

c. 6 hours

d. 8 hours

c

197

If time only is used as a public health control, the maximum prior of time recommended by the FDS for potentially hazardous food to be held is:

a. 2 hours

b. 4 hours if warmest part does not exceed 120

c. 6 hours if warmest part does not exceed 70

d. this is never permitted

c

198

What is the minimum period of time that the FDA recommends employees wash their hands and arms up to the elbow?

a. 10 sec
b. 20 sec
c. 30 sec
d. 40 sec

b

199

Unpasteurized eggs not intended for immediate service should be cooked to:

a. 165 for 15 sec
b. 155 for 15 sec
c. 145 for 15 sec
d. 140 for 1 min

b

200

What is the usual mode of infection for salmonella?

a. ingestion of contaminated food
b. ingestion of contaminated water
c. contact with an active case
d. contact with fomites

a

201

What is the source of scromboid poisoning?

a. histamines in the muscle of fish
b. sprouted green potatoes
c. undercooked pork
d. rice contaminated with rodent feces

a

202

All of the following are signs of spoiled fish except:

a. strong odor
b. elastic flesh
c. gray gills
c. sunken eyes

b

203

Which of the following shellfish are most likely to cause illness?

a. oysters
b. crabs
c. shrimp
d. scallops

a

204

What is the most effective practice for preventing trichinosis in people?

a. be certain that ground meat is freshly ground at the time of purchase

b. be sure that fresh pork is thoroughly cooked

c. avoid the consumption of ground meat products

d. cook steak until well done

b

205

What should not be done with food samples collected during a foodborne illness investigation?

a. refrigerate
b. freeze
c. seal
d. label

b

206

What is the primary requirement of designing a food service facility?

a. durability
b. cleanability
c. appearance
d. convenience

b

207

what is the most important rule in food storage?

a. FIFO
b. store products in order of pull by date
c. repackage dry foods into metal containers
d. store canned goods under refrigeration

a

208

Insecticides/pesticides may be stored in all way except:

a. in a metal locked cabinet
b. on the lowest shelf in the storage room
c. above the dishwashing sinks
d. in the basement separate from food and other chemicals

c

209

a HACCP plan is not required when

a. smoking foods for preservation
b. cooling and reheating phf in bulk
c. performing reduced oxygen packaging
d. using food additives or adding other components to preserve food or render it non phf

b

210

What type of compounds are allergens?

proteins

211

Most pathogens are:

a. mesophiles
b. thermophiles
c. psychrophile

a. mesophiles

grow best at normal human body temp (98)

212

Bacteria that cause spoilage instead of illness are typically:

a. mesophiles
b. thermophiles
c. psychrophile

b. thermophiles

213

Most molds are not pathogenic although some produce mycotoxins such as ____________ which is very toxic

aflatoxin

214

What is trichinella spiralis

a parasite (round worm) commonly present in undercooked or raw pork.

215

Entamoeba histolytica is commonly known as __________ and it a parasite

travelers diarhea

216

________________ is a protozoan transmitted from infected food handlers or contaminated water

giardia lamblia

217

Anisakis is a roundworm found in certain species of ________

fish

218

What does HACCP stand for?

hazard analysis and critical control points

219

HACCP was developed in the 19____s in response to _________ needed to create safe food for astronauts

1960s for NASA

220

What are the 4 types of chemical hazard categories

agricultural chemicals
industrial chemicals
naturally occurring toxicants (plants e.g.)
food chemicals (additives)

221

What are the 7 principles of HACCP

1. conduct a hazard analysis
2. identify critical control points
3. establish critical limits
4. establish a system to monitor CCP
5. establish corrective actions to take against CCPs that are not controlled
6. establish verification procedures to confirm HACCP is working
7. establish documentation and records

222

What is a hazard analysis

the process of looking at all the food and processes in order to find the potential hazards to food safety

223

What is a critical limit

a measurement or observation that separates what is acceptable from what is not acceptable

224

Who must sign the HACCP records

the person completing the record and the person reviewing the records.

225

What is a critical control point?

a step in the process where control must be applied in order to prevent or eliminate a hazard, or reduce it to an acceptable level

226

What procedures require a HACCP Plan (name 7)

1. smoking for preservation
2. curing
3. additives or vinegar to preserve
4. live molluscan tank
5. processing animals for personal use
6. using acidification or water activity to prevent c. botulinum
7. reduced oxygen packaging

and any other process in which the regulatory agency has deemed it necessary to have a haccp plan