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Flashcards in Hazmat, Toxicology Deck (123):
1

Hazardous materials/wastes have one or more of the following four characteristics

TRIC
Toxicity
Reactivity
Ignitability
Corrosivity

2

WHat does RCRA stand for? What is it?

resource conservation and recovery act

federal guidelines used to classify hw

3

most hw are considered RCRA hw because (list the four bullets)

the waste is listed in RCRA
the waste exhibits one of the characteristics
the combination of a solid and hw
it cannot be excluded from the RCRA category

4

What information does an MSDS/SDS include about a product

chemical properties
methods of clean up
emergency procedures
first aid

5

what is an EPA id number used for

a registration number that hazardous waste generators must have

6

What is a manifest

a multiple copy document that must accompany hazardous waste shipments

7

what 5 items must be listed on an HW manifest

quantity and type of packaging
proper shipping name
hazard class
four digit ID number
total weight of materials

8

What does the term "cradle to grave" mean

the person/company generating the waste is responsible for it's proper and legal disposal

9

What is a bill of lading and how is it different from a manifest

bill of lading is required for any hazmat during transportation. it's a shipping document.

the manifest is a specific document required for hw

10

What agency regulates transportation of hm and hw

DOT department of transportation

11

bill of lading is sometimes referred to as what in these other shipping industries

truck
rail
air
sea

freight bill - truck
waybill - rail
cargo manifest - air
dangerous cargo manifest - water

12

placard identification is based on what four things

color
symbol
description of product
hazard class or ID number

13

what do the following colors/backgrounds represent on a placard

orange
red
green
yellow
blue
white
white w/ vertical stripes
white over black

orange - explosives/blasting agents
red - flammable/combustible
green - non flammable/highly pressurized
yellow - reactive
blue - violently reacts with water
white - poison
white w/ vertical stripes - flammable solid
white over black - corrosive

14

What are two color placards used for

for a material that has two major hazard characteristics

15

what do the following symbols mean on a placard

bursting ball
flame
cylinder
slash W
skull cross bones
circle with flame
test tube, a hand, or metal
propeller

bursting ball - explosives
flame - flammable/combustible
cylinder - non flammable
slash W - violently reacts with water
skull/cross bones - poison
circle w/ flame - oxidizing material
test tube, a hand or metal - corrosive
propeller - radioactive

16

What are some common descriptions used on placards

radioactive
dangerous
fuel oil
combustible
chlorine
flammable gas
corrosive
blasting agent
explosive

etc.

17

define the 9 hazard classes for DOT placarding

1 - explosives
2 - gases
3 - flammable liquids
4 - flammable solids
5 - oxidizers or organic peroxides
6 - poisonous or etiological materials
7 - radioactive
8 - corrosives
9 - miscellaneous hm

18

What are the four edges of a NFPA hazmat placard and where are these usually found

usually on exteriors of buildings that store materials
NFPA = national fire protection association

from the left clockwise
A - health hazard
B - fire hazard
C - reactivity
D - specific hazard

19

What does 0-4 indicate on the health hazard portion of the NFPA placard

0 normal
1 slightly hazardous
2 hazardous
3 extremely hazardous
4 deadly

20

what does 0-4 indicate on the fire hazard portion of the NFPA placard

0 will not burn
1 above 200F
2 below 200F
3 below 100F
4 below 73F

21

what does 0-4 indicate on the reactivity hazard portion of the NFPA placard

0 stable
1 unstable
2 violent chemical reaction
3 shock or heat may detonate
4 may detonate

22

What specifications would be listed in the specific hazard section of the NFPA placard

oxidize
acid
alkali
water reactive
corrosive
radioactive

23

buildings and structures will have _____ placards while transportation trucks and shipping containers will have _____ placards

NFPA
DOT

24

containers less than _______ cubic feet must be marked with ____ inch labels

containers more than _______cubic feet must be marked with placards that are _______ inches

less than 640 4'' labels
more than 640 10.75 '' placards

25

what is the standard liquid container size

42 gallon drum

26

What are the safety perimeters for a hazmat incident (state the 4 zones)

after determining the wind direction then the zones can be identified.

isolation zone - immediate area of incident

hot zone/exclusionary zone - usually at least 1500 sq ft

warm zone/secondary zone/contamination reduction zone - works get decontaminated here after leaving the hot zone

cold zone - reasonable safe to conduct command post operations

27

What is an emergency contingency plan

procedures to be taken for businesses that store hm and hw

28

acids form ______ while bases form ______

acids hydronium ions (H+)
bases hydroxide ions (OH-)

29

RCRA defines a corrosive as an aqueous solutions w/ a pH less than ___ or greater than ___

or a solid that exhibits corrosive characteristics

less than 2
greater than 12.5

30

why do we no longer dilute corrosive liquid spills?

because it requires way too much water and the waste still needs to be contained

31

What is neutralization

a chemical reaction

H+ + OH- = H20 + salt + heat

exothermic (heat producing rxn)

can be used for spill clean up

32

What is stoichiometry

the chemistry science that deals with the quantities of substances that are necessary for, and produced by, chemical reactions

reactions are dependent upon the concentration of the substances, their molecular weights etc.

33

What is solubility how is it measured

ability or tendency for one substance to blend uniformly with another.

can vary from 0 to 100%

insoluble substances can be physically blended together for a short period of time but will eventually separate. e.g. oil and water.

34

What is specific gravity

ratio of a substance's density to the density of water

>1 sinks or is absorbed w/ water

35

what is vapor density? When would it be important to know this?

relative ratio of the density of a gas/vapor to the density of air.

>1 settles at lowest point of a room

36

an oxygen deficient atmosphere is one with less than ______%oxygen

19%

37

What is vapor pressure

pressure exerted by a liquids vapor in a closed container.

expressed as mm Hg @ ___ degrees

higher vapor pressure = more volatile substance

38

The boiling point is the point at which the _________ = the ________________

vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure

39

the (higher/lower) the boiling point, the (higher/lower) the vapor pressure and therefore a greater tendency to vaporize creating a potential inhalation hazard

lower bp
higher vp

40

___ % concentration = _________ ppm

1% = 10,000 ppm

41

_____ mg/L = 1 ppm

1 mg/l = 1ppm

42

_____% = 1 ppb = ___ ugm/L

.001% = 1 ppb = 1 ugm/L

43

what are three important concepts when dealing with chemical hazards

1. existence of multiple hazards
2. chemical rxns
3. chemical compatibility factor

44

What is reactivity

a substance that can explode or react in a way that can be hazardous to humans and the environment

45

What are 7 criteria for reactivity

1. normally unstable - can undergo a violent change
2. reacts dangerously with water or air
3. can generate toxic gas, fumes, vapors when mixed with water
4. can form explosive mixtures
5. contains cyanide or sulfides
6. can produce a toxic gas or vapor
7. can explode when ignited at room temp

46

what are two types of chemical reactions. which are the most dangerous?

endothermic - removes heat source
exothermic - creates heat source (dangerous)

47

What are some examples of incompatible hazard groups

oxidizers w/ flammables
oxidizer w/ organics
acids w/ bases
acids w/ cyanides
acids w/ sulfides

48

What are some e.g. of water reactives

potassium
sodium
lithium metals
calcium carbide

49

metals + acids = _____________

hydrogen gas

50

cyanides + acids = ___________

hydrogen cyanide gas

51

sulfides + acids = _________

hydrogen sulfide gas

52

oxidizers + acids or bases = ________

toxic gas formation, fires, explosions

53

metals + bases = _______

metal destruction

54

What are oxidizers

substances that spontaneously release oxygen at room temp or under slight heating.

increase fires
react w/ organics

55

What are some examples of oxidizers

peroxides
permanganates
persulfates
perchlorates
nitrates
nittites
chlorites
chlorates

56

what are 4 criteria for ignitability

liquid w/ fp less than 60C/140F

non liquid that can burn consistently and vigorously

flammable compressed gas

an oxidizer

57

What is a flashpoint

lowest temperature at which a liquid will give off enough vapors that will form an ignitable mixture

aka: air interlace

58

the lower the f.p. the (higher/lower) the hazard

higher the hazard... more flammable

59

What is the auto-ignition temperature

the last temperature at which a substance will spontaneously ignite. usually a very high temperature

60

What is the flammable range?

the range of vapor to air concentration of a substance that will ignite and burn if an ignition source is present

61

Most regulations state a flammable liquid as one with a flash point of _____F or lower

140F

62

NFPA has flammable classifications from IA to IIIB which end has the lowest flashpoints

IA has the lowest and IIIB has the highest

63

What is a combustible liquid

a liquid with a flash point between 100 and 200F

64

do flammable gases have flashpoints?

no because they are already in a gaseous state. they have flammable ranges instead

65

what is LEL and UEL

lower explosive limit - leanest vapor to air concentration that will sustain a burn or explosion

upper explosive limit - richest vapor to air concentration that will burn or explode

66

what happens above a UEL?

the vapor concentration is too high and there is not enough air to support burning

67

explosive dusts

usually explode if mixed with air and an ignition source such as static electricity

68

What are pyrophorics

substances that will ignite spontaneously in air below 130F

69

what are explosives

substances that undergo rapid chemical transformation which produce large amounts of gases and heat

70

high explosives usually contain ______

they require what to detonate?

nitrogen

require mechanical impact, friction or heat

they are higher velocity than low explosives

71

define corrosion

a substance that can cause harm to living tissue or react chemically with steel

72

what is the criteria for corrosivity

liquid w/ pH lower than 2 or higher than 12.5

reacts with steel at a rate of .025 '' (6.35mm) a year at 55C

73

caustics are a term for

acids and bases

74

toxicity.... LD50 for
acute oral ____
dermal ____

LC50 (lethal concentration)
inhalation _____

acute oral - less than 5,000 mg/kg single dose
dermal - less than 4300 mg/kg in 4 hour period
inhalation - less than 10,000 ppm or 1%

75

what is bioaccumulation or magnificaiton

any substance that can persist in the human body

76

what are cryogenics

liquefied gases kept at very low temperatures -260C

77

how can a gas be an asphyxiant

by depleting oxygen from the ambient air

78

what is IDLH

immediately dangerous to life and health

79

what is a BLEVE

boiling liquid expending vapor explosion

when a liquid evaporates in a confined area it puts pressure on its container. a common type of explosion to derailed railroad containers

80

if emergency flares are used they should be placed (upwind/downwind) of a hazmat spill

upwind

81

What is the ICS

incident command system (replaced the HMER haz mat emergency response plan)

82

what are the three phases in a hazmat incident/spill

critical phase
containment stage
clean up and disposal

83

absolute press = _________________ pressure + atmospheric pressure

gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure

84

What is ACGIH

American conference of government industrial hygienists

85

acute exposure

short term, on time exposure with immediate response

86

what is an aerosol

dispersion of particles (may be solid, or liquid) in a gaseous medium

87

describe the condition of "air inversion"

when air temperatures are colder closer to earth and warmer farther away. typically it's the reverse.

this condition can trap gases and vapors close to the surface

88

CEQA stands for

California environmental quality act

89

CERCLA stands for

comprehensive environmental response, compensation and liability act (1980)

90

chronic

long term exposure

91

colorimetric tubes are aka _____- tubes and they contain chemical indicators for testing airborne concentrations

draeger tubes

92

what is a control agent

any material that is used to contain or extinguish a hazardous material or its vapors

93

what is evaporation

at ambient temperatures when a substance changes form a liquid to a vapor state

94

what is flame impingement

the points where flames contact the surface of a container

95

what is flashback

re-ignition of a flammable liquid

96

what is a floating roof

a type of roof used on oil tanks to prevent the vapor space over the liquid

97

what are fusible plugs

a threaded plug designed to melt away to allow the escape of a gas rather than combustion

98

NIOSH stands for

national institute of occupational safety and health

99

a non liquefied gas is one that is entirely gaseous at a temp of ____F

70F

100

OSHA stands for

occupational safety and heath administration

101

what is miscibility

a flammable liquids ability to mix with water

102

two common liquefied petroleum gases are

propane and butane

103

what is a plume

the general shape of a spill or release

104

PEL stands for

permissible exposure limit

105

SARA stands for

superfund amendments and reauthorization act 1986

106

STEL stands for

short term exposure limit

107

TLV stands for

threshold limit value

108

TSD stands for

treatment, storage, disposal

109

TSDF stands for

treatment, storage, and disposal facility

110

what is sublimation

the temperature at which a substance changes form a solid to a gas/vapor with no liquid stage in between.

111

What does TWA stand for?

time weighted average. a ceiling exposure limit value.

112

What is viscosity

the flow resistance characteristic of a liquid

113

hazmat reporting thesholds

500 lbs solid
55 gallons liquid
200 cubic feet gas

114

disposal time frames
sqg
lqg
cesqg
satellite accumulation area

sqg 180
lqg 90
100 kg then 180 days
within 90 days of reaching 55gal/1 quart

115

FEMA has a four category process regarding emergency management. what are the 4 categories

prevention or mitigation
preparedness
response
recovery

116

local vs. systemic effects

local - reaction affects a certain part of the body - typically externally, occurs at site of contact

system effects - occur at site distant from route of entry. typically attack a target organ or systems

117

TLV stands for ____ and is what?

threshold limit values

chemical concentrations to which workers may be exposed all day without adverse effect

118

TWA stands for ____ and is what?

time weighted average

avg concentration of a chemical most workers can be repeatedly exposed to during an 8 hour day, 40 hours work week without developing adverse or chronic effects

119

STEL stands for _____ and is what?

short term exposure limit

allowable exposure concentration for a short time period (15 minutes average)

120

IDLH stands for

immediately dangerous to life and health

irreversible damage or death

121

____________ is the maximum exposure concentration at any time

ceiling

122

a _______________ is a substance or condition resulting in congenital malformations/birthdefects

teratogen

123

a __________________ is an agent that causes chromosomal damage or rearrangement resulting in an alteration of the genetic code within a cell

mutagen