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Flashcards in Diseases Deck (93):
1

Epidemic

occurrence of a disease in a community or region that is more than normal

2

Endemic

when a disease is expected to be around to some degree within a geographical area. e.g. plague

3

Communicable diseases are those that are transferable from one _______ to another

from one host to another

4

Epidemiology is the study of _______

diseases

5

Pandemic

a disease that exists throughout a wide area

6

Zoonosis is a group of ____________ diseases that can be transmitted to ______. e.g. is __________

animal diseases transferable to man.

e.g. rabies

7

Acute vs. Chronic diseases

acute - rapid onset
chronic - prolonged exposure, long duration illness

8

Direct vs. Indirect transmission of diseases

direct - human to human, animal to human, animal to animal

indirect - vector, fomites

9

bacteria are usually ___ to ____ microns in size

.5 to 3 microns

10

Name 4 common bacterial shapes

rod, cocci, clumps, spiral

11

clinical vs carrier casses

clinical - symptomatic
carrier - asymptomatic (typhoid mary)

12

subclinical is the state of the host (before/after) the disease causes symptoms

before symptoms

13

the vehicle is how the infectious agent gets transmitted to the host.

e.g. are____ and _____

food and water

14

What are the 5 routes of infections. Which are the two most common.

respiratory - most common
oral/digestive - second most common
skin
eyes
injections

15

Passive vs. Active immunity and Natural and Acquired forms of both.

Passive - received from another source
naturally passive - maternal transfer
acquired passive - inoculation of antibodies

Active - formed by body's immune system
naturally active - from infection
acquired active - inoculation by killed virus/agent then body builds immunity

16

Intrinsic vs. extrinsic host factors

intrinsic (genetic) - age, sex, race, immunologic state

extrinsic (controllable) - personal habits, nutritional state, stress level

17

synergist/synergy

two chemicals produce a greater effect together than either produce alone

18

additive effects

two chemicals produce an effect approximately twice that of either chemical alone.

e.g. cigarette smoking and air pollution

19

multiplicative effects

two chemicals produce an effect several times greater than either product alone

20

accelerator effect

one chemical enables or enhances the toxic effect of another. similar to a "catalyst." e.g. soot

21

Top 4 accidental deaths

car accidents
accidental falls (most common in the home)
fire and explosion (most common in workplace)
accidental drowning

22

isolation vs quarantine

isolation - disease is know - physical separation to avoid spread

quarantine - disease is unknown

23

gram stain and colors

gram positive retain crystal violet dye (purple)
gram negative - counter stain (safranin) flushes out the crystal violet - microbes appear (red/pink) thinner cell wall

24

gram positive bacteria have a thick layer of _____

peptidoglycan

25

What are the four growth conditions of bacteria in regards to oxygen level

aerobic

microaerophillic - require lower levels of oxygen

facultative anaerobe - will use aerobic respiration but can use anaerobic respiration or fermentation if needed

anaerobic

26

What are toxins

poisonous substances produced by certain microrgaisms

27

exotoxins vs endotoxins

exotoxins - secreted by bacteria, a waste product - highly toxic. They are tissue or organ specific. Usually from gram positive.

endotoxins - part of gram negative cell wall called LPS which are released when the bacteria die

28

What are some of the damaging effects of endotoxins

vasodilation----> hypotension (low bp)
fever
weakness
leukopenia

29

the following bacteria produce which types of exotoxins

staph aureus
clost. botulinum
clos. tetani
corneybacterium diptheriae

staph aureus - enterotoxin (GI tract)
clost. botulinum - neurotoxin
clos. tetani - neurotoxin
corneybacterium diptheriae - cytotoxin (attacks living cells)

30

Colorado Tick Fever
type
reservoir
mode
fatality

virus
rodents - squirrels, chipmunks
adult tick - dermacentor andersoni (wood tick)
deaths are rare

31

________________ is a disease that causes inflammation in parts of the brain, specifically the meninges and spinal cord. This disease is caused by a (bacteria/virus)

Ecephalitis
viral

32

What are the 4 types of encephalitis that affect humans. Name the mosquito vector(s) for each type

Eastern Equine - Culiseta melanura
St. Louis - Culex tarsalis, Culex pipens
Western Equine - Culex tarsalis
West Nile Virus - Culex tarsalis

33

In encephalitis, mild cases cane become viral ______________. Sever infections result in disorientation, convulsions and death. Incubation period is between __ and __ days.

mild cases --> viral meningitis
5-15 days incubation

34

____________ is a viral disease that usually affects the liver giving physical symptoms of jaundice

Hepatitis

35

What are the three types of hepatitis

Hep A - infectious
Hep B and C - Serum

36

Hep A
type
mode
average incubation period
typical illness duration
fatality rate

virus
fecal oral route
25-30 days incubation
1-2 week duration
low fatality, 1 per 1000

37

Hep B & C
type
mode
incubation time
fatality

virus
blood - hypodermic needles - drug use
60-90 day incubation
1% fatality

38

Rabies
type
reservoir
mode
incubation
symptoms
fatality

virus
reservoir - warm blooded animals - dogs, bats(most rabid), skunks
mode - bite from infected animal
incubation 3-6 weeks
symptoms - paralysis, painful swallowing, foaming mouth, disease attacks central nervous system
fatality - usually fatal once clinical symptoms arrive, treatable if caught during incubation

39

Rabies treatment for humans includes either ______ or ______

Rabies testing for animals includes examination for ____________ in the brain

DEV - duck embryo vaccine
RIG - rabies immune globulin

negri bodies

40

Yellow Fever
type
mode
region
incubation
symptoms
fatality

virus
Aedes aegypti mosquito
south American and Africa
3-6 day incubation
flu like symptoms
50% fatal to non indigenous

41

AIDS
type
mode
symptoms
fatality

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
virus - HIV - human immunodeficiency virus
mode - bodily fluids - sexual transmission
symptoms - HIV causes flu like symptoms, then a long asymptomatic period and can later appear as the late stage disease of AIDS
fatality 80 to 90%

42

Hanta Virus
type
mode
avg incubation
fatality
symptoms

virus
rodent aerosols
12-16 days
hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome
8090 % fatality

43

Cholera
type
mode
symptoms
fatality

bacti
Vibrio cholera
mode - fecal oral route
typically a waterborne disease
rice water stools
only fatal if no treatment

44

Vibrio parahemolyticus is a bacterial illness from ____________

contaminated seafood

45

Ornithosis/Parrot Fever
type
mode
symptoms

bacti
Chlamydia psittaci
contact with infected birds - parakeets, parrots, pigeons
cold/respiratory symptoms

46

Anthrax
type
aka:
mode
incubation period
symptoms
fatality for untreated cases
control

bacti
Bacillus anthracis - spore former
aka: wool sorter's disease
mode - animal hides, hair, meat
incubation - 2-5 days
skin lesions or upper respiratory infection (serious)
20% fatality if untreated
control - dust control, wool/sheep brushes disinfected

47

Plague
type
two types
mode
incubation
fatality
historically called ______

bacti
bubonic(swollen lymph nodes) and pneumonic (respiratory, 2nd stage, highly contagious)

Yersinia pestis
mode - rats (rats get it from flea - oriental rat flea)
symptoms - high fever, low bp, rapid pulse, convulsions, coma
incubation 2-6 days
fatality - untreated 50%

one of the deadliest disease known to man

historically called "black death"

48

Rabbit Fever/Deerfly Fever/Tularemia
type
mode

bacti
Francisella tularensis
mode - deerfly bite, inoculation from infected rabbit/deer

49

Brucellosis
type
aka
mode

bacti
Brucella abortus
aka: undulant fever (humans) Bang's disease (cattle), Kennel Cough
mode - infected animals or dairy products

50

Fever is not usually a symptom of this type of foodborne illness

foodborne intoxications

51

heat stable vs heat labile toxins

heat stable - toxin survives heat (usually chemical based toxins)
heat labile - toxin does not survive heating (usually protein based toxins)

52

___________ is an e.g. of a heat stable toxin

staph aureus

53

___________ is an e.g. of a heat labile toxin

clost. botulinum

54

Bacillus cereus
type
mode
infectious dose
incubation
symptoms
duration

gram pos, facultative anaerobe, spore former
intoxication
mode - ingestion of cooked food left out too long. meats, stews, gravies, rice
ID 500,000 bacti
incubation - 10-16 hours
symptoms - cramps, D, N
duration - 24-48 hours

55

Clostridium botulinum
type
mode
ID
incubation
symptoms
duration
Fatality of untreated

gram pos, anaerobic, spore former
intoxication
mode - ingestion of improperly canned foods, home canned fish, vegetables, fermented fish, baked potatoes in aluminum foil
ID very few - most potent toxic to man
incubation - 12-72 hours
symptoms - V, D, blurred/double vision, difficulty swallowing
duration - variable
fatality - 30% of untreated cases

56

floppy baby syndrome is associated with __________ and can be caused by the ingestion of ________

botulism
honey

57

the botulism toxin is a (endotoxin/exotoxin) and is heat (stabile/labile)

exotoxin (neurotoxin), heat labile (protein structure)

58

Clostridium perfringens
aka:
type
mode
ID
incubation
symptoms
duration

gram pos, anaerobic, spore former
toxin mediated infection
aka: cafeteria bacteria
mode - ingestion of meats (roasts), poultry, gravy, MEXICAN BEANS, time/temp abused foods
ID - 1-100 million organisms
incubation 8-16 hours
symptoms - intense cramps, watery D
duration - 24 hours

59

Salmonella
type
mode
ID
incubation
symptoms
duration
Typhoid Fever

gram neg, non spore former, enterobacteria
infection
mode - fecal oral - ingestion of eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk/juice, cheese, contaminated raw fruits/vegetables - undercooked foods, cross contamination.
ID - 1000 to 10,000 bacti
incubation - 6-48 hours
symptoms - D, F, cramps, V
4-7 days
Typhoid fever - salmonella typhi - more serious than salmonellosis

60

which organism is the control organism for the phenol coefficient

salmonella typhi

61

Shigella
type
aka
mode
ID
incubation
symptoms
duration

Shigella dysenteriae - gram neg, facultative anaerobe, non spore former
infection
aka bacillary dysentery
mode - fecal oral - contaminated water, raw produce, uncooked foods or improperly reheated foods, cruise ship ice
ID - 10 or more bacti
incubation - 4-7 days
symptoms - crapms, F, D, stools may contain blood/mucus
duration - 24-48 hours

62

Staph aureus
aka
type
mode
incubation
symptoms
duration

staphylococcus aureus - gram pos, aerobe
picnic food poisoning
intoxication (enterotoxin)
mode - from skin lesions, nose mouth of man to food - unrefrigerated or improperly refrigerated meats, potatos, egg salads, cream pastries
incubation - 1-6 hours
symptoms - sudden onset severe N and V. cramps, D and F may also be present. Normally no fever though
duration - 24-48 hours

63

toxic shock syndrome in women is caused by ____________

staph aureus

64

___________ is a nosocomial infection (commonly acquired at a hospital)

staph aureus

65

E Coli O157 H7
aka
type
mode
incubation
symptoms
duration

aka: enterohemoragic, or HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome
type - Escherichia coli, gram neg, facultative anaerobe
Toxin Mediated infection
mode - undercooked beef, unpasteurized milk/juice, raw vegetables (sprouts), contaminated water
incubation - 1-8 days
symptoms - severe bloody D, abdo pain, V. usually no fever. kidney failure in kids.
duration - 5-10 days

66

Norovirus
aka
type
mode
incubation
symptoms
duration

aka: viral gastroenteritis, winter diarrhea, food poisoning, Norwalk virus etc.
virus
mode - fecal oral route - raw produce, contaminated drinking water, poor food handler hygiene, shellfish from contaminated waters
incubation - 12-48 hours
symptoms - N, V, cramps, D, F, headache. D more prevalent in adults, V more prevalent in children.
duration - 12-60 hours

67

Streptococcus pyogenes
aka
type
mode
symptoms

aka scarlet fever
gram positive
mode - direct contact with airborne droplets, contaminated food and milk
symptoms - sore throat

68

Campylobacter jejuni
type
mode
ID
incubation
symptoms
duration

gram neg, microaerophillic
infection
mode - cross contamination or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water
ID 400 bacteria
incubation - 2-5 days
symptoms - D cramps, V, D may be bloody
duration - 2-10 days
easily killed by disinfection

69

_______________ is bacterial disease especially from raw or undercooked oysters. Can be fatal to those with liver diseases or weakened immune systems

Vibrio vulnificus

70

Gonyaulax C is the name of the toxin responsible for ____________

paralytic shellfish poisoning

71

Tuberculosis
type
mode
symptoms

mycobacterium tuberculosis
acid fast, aerobic
mode - exposure to airborne droplets
symptoms - after 4 to 6 week incubation cough, fever, fatigue
highly contagious

72

Relapsing fever is caused by _______________ and is transmitted by ___________

borrelia recurrentis

transmitted by ticks

73

____________'s disease is an atypical form of pneumonia and can be caused when the bacteria gets into air conditioning units

legionaires disease

74

___________________ is a bacteria disease that can occur from contact with water that is contaminated with urine of infected animals such as cattle, dogs, horses and swine

leptospirosis

75

Listeria
type
mode
incubation
symptoms
duration

listeria monocytogenes, gram pos, facultative anerobe
infection
mode - ingestion of unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses, ready to eat deli meets, seafood products
incubation - 9-48 hours for GI, 2-6 weeks for invasive disease
symptoms - flu like symptoms, pregnant women very susceptible to still birth
duration - variable
notes - very hardy organisms resistant to freezing, dry, hot environments etc.

76

Thrush is a common name for the fungal infection caused by the yeast ________________

candida albicans

77

Gilchrists disease is caused by the yeast _____________

blastomyces dermitidis

78

Valley fever or desert fever can be caught by inhalation of spores form soil or vegetation. It's caused by the fungus _______________

coccidiodes immitis

79

Darlings disease is caused by the fungus ____________________ and can be found in soil around chicken coops and bat caves

histoplasma capsulatum

80

Tinea, or ________________ is a fungal infection from the ______________ and ____________ species.

ringworm
microsporum
trichophyton

on the foot it's called athletes foot

81

Lymes disease is caused by the bacteria ____________ and is transmitted from the tick species ___________

the illness presents as a skin leasion followed by fatigue fever and lymph node inflammation

borrelia

ticks species Ixodes

82

Rickettsia bacteria

gram neg, non spore forming
carried by limes, ticks and other arthropods
diseases include
rocky mountain spotted fever - dermacentor tick
typhus fever - pediculus humanis (lice) oriental rat flea (xenophylla) mite larvae (leptotrombidium)

83

scabies is caused by bites from ________

mites sarcoptes scabiei

84

entamoeba histolytica is an infection from _______________

protozoan

85

Cryptosporodium is an infection caused by a ____________ which can be in contaminated water. the symptoms are usually______

protozoan

watery D, cramps, slight fever

86

_______ is caused by a protozoan which can be in contaminated drinking water. It's common for hikers and day care centers.

giardia

87

Malaria is caused by the protozoan ___________________. The mode is by infected ______________

plasmodium vivax

mosquito

88

the tse tse fly is the mode of transmission for _______________

African sleeping sickness

89

swimmer's itch is caused by the parasite ________________ and is the most common waterborne disease

schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke)

90

beef and pork tape worms are scientifically known as

taenia solium (pork)
taenia saginata (beef)

91

The two common varieties of hookworms are. to prevent infection do not ___________

ancylostoma duodenale
necator americanus
do not walk barefoot in soils known to have hookworms

they can survive wastewater treatment

92

ascaris lumbricoides is a _________________

roundworm

93

pinworms are called ____________

enterobius vermicularis