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Flashcards in Radiation Deck (35):
1

Describe an atom

nucleus core with protons and neutrons. negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus

2

______ energy is the energy necessary to keep electrons in orbit around the nucleus

binding energy

3

___________ radiation can be natural and man made and occurs from energy that is emitted from an atom.

ionizing

4

__________radiation is electromagnetic energy which does not have enough energy to break apart atoms. e.g. are microwaves, radiowaves, infrared, UV and visible light

non-ionizing

5

what is an isotope

atoms of the same element with same number of protons but different number of neutrons

6

what is a nuclide

when several isotopes of the same element exist

7

radionuclide/radioisotopes are (stable/unstable)

unstable

8

ionizing radiation acts upon matter which absorbs them and pairs of _____________ are formed

ions (electrically charged fragments)

9

alpha particle

two protons, two neutrons
very stable, high energy
will not penetrate skin, but dangerous if inhaled/ingested
paper will block them

e.g. radon gas

10

beta particles

emitted electrons
they penetrate more than alpha particles
protective clothing and good hygiene will protect
dangerous if ingested

11

gamma rays

originate in the atomic nucleus
may be lethal
require full protection
electromagnetic
short wavelength high energy

12

x-rays

very short wavelength
highly penetrating

13

what are the 5 units used to measure radiation

Roentgen (R) /Coulomb/kg (C/kg) - unit of exposure or intensity

Radiation absorbed dose (RAD) / Gray (Gy) - unit of radiation absorbed

Roentgen Equavlent Man (rem) / seivert (Sv) - unit of dose equivalent or occupation exposure

Curie (Ci) / Becquerel (Bq) - unit of radioactivity

Electron volt (eV) - energy of an x - ray

14

exposure distance:

doubling the distance from a radiation source decreases the exposure to ____% of the original amount

25%

15

___ REM is the maximum amount of radiation to the whole body one can receive a year

5 REM

16

doses of _______ REM may be lethal to man

350-400 REM

17

what is the most common route of entry of radiation

inhalation

18

what are the two types of damage from radiation

somatic - induced diseases - cancer, leukemia, skin, bone etc.
genetic - mutations passed to offspring

19

what are some devices used to monitor radiation (name 3)

pocket dosimeter (can be read while wearing)
pocket chamber (requires separate device to read)
film badge (takes a while to get readings)

20

name 5 types of radionuclides

Cesium 137
Carbon 14
Iodine 131
Strontium 89
Strontium 90

21

minimum acceptable level of radon in a single family home is ________

4 pCi/l

22

alpha tract detectors are used to test for __________

radon

23

which is the more dangerous types of radiation

ionizing radiation

24

a magnetron produces what type of non-ionizing radiation

microwaves

25

a "power density meter" tests for what?

microwave leakage

26

which of the following have little penetrating power and are normally a hazard to health only in the form of internal radiation received through ingestion, inhalation or open wounds

x rays
alpha particles
beta particles
gamma rays

alpha rays

27

beta radiation is most commonly blocked by which one of the following materials

lead
concrete
magnesium alloy
glass or plastic

glass or plastic

28

microwaves are reflected by

metals
plastic
glass
polymers

metals

29

the energy of ionizing radiation is measured in

eV

30

the shorter the wavelength the

higher the frequency, lower the energy
lower the frequency and energy
lower the frequency and higher the energy
higher the frequency and energy

higher the frequency and energy

31

the roentgen is a measure of ionization in the air produced by exposure to

xrays or gamma rays
alpha particles
beta particles
all of the above

x rays or gamma rays

32

the absorption of how many ergs (energy per gram) of air represents one roentgen?

150
100
86
50

about 86

33

which term is used to show the exposure of large populations to low level radiation

person-rem
gamma-rem
radiation-rem
quantum-rem

person-rem

34

the rate at which atoms of radioactive sources (radionuclides) disintegrate are measured in

rems
rods
curies
roentgens

curies

35

isotopes of the same element have

(same/different) atomic numbers
(same/different) mass number

same atomic number
different mass number