Alzheimer's and other dementias Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Alzheimer's and other dementias Deck (17):
1

Definition of dementia

Progressive deficits in several cognitive domains

2

How does dementia usually present?

Progressive memory loss over months to years

3

Important aspects of history in suspected dementia (6)

Timeline of deficits
Particular aspects of deficit e.g. memory
Activities of daily living
Finances
Medication
Other symptoms

4

Other symptoms of dementia (4)

Mood disturbance
Apathy
Wandering
Agitation/aggression

5

Tests to exclude a reversible cause (6)

FBC, U&Es, calcium, LFTs, glucose, TSH

6

Imaging modalities in dementia (3)

CT
MRI
Functional imaging e.g. PET, SPECT

7

Pathophysiology of AD (2)

Beta-amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles
Acetylcholinergic neuronal loss

8

Areas where neurones are particularly lost in AD (4)

Nucleus basalis of Meynert
Temporal lobe
Amygdala
Hippocampus

9

Risk factors for AD (4)

1st degree relative affected
Downs syndrome
Vascular risk factors
APOE e4 allele

10

Pharmacological management of AD (2)

AChesterase inhibitors
Antiglutamergics e.g. memantine

11

Examples of AChesterase inhibtors (3)

Rivastigmine
Donepezil
Galanatime

12

Features suggesting vascular dementia rather than AD (2)

Stepwise deterioration
Various vascular risk factors/events

13

Features of Lewy body dementia (3)

Fluctuating cognitive impairment
Detailed visual hallucinations
Parkinsonism

14

What are Lewy bodies?

Cytoplasmic inclusions of alpha-synuclein

15

What drugs should be avoided in Lewy body dementia?

Neuroleptics e.g. haloperidol- may cause irreversible parkinsonism

16

Cause of frontotemporal dementa (FTD)

Atrophy of frontal and temporal regions without Alzheimer's histology

17

Features of FTD (4)

Early preservation of episodic memory and spatial orientation
Disinhibition
Decreased exective functioning
Emotional unconcern