Neuropathology 2- MS and dementia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuropathology 2- MS and dementia Deck (16):
1

What are demyelinating diseases characterised by?

Destruction of myelin with relative preservation of axons

2

Most common demyelinating disorder

Multiple sclerosis

3

Presentation of MS is usually...

Focal neurological deficit (such as optic neuritis, limp weakness, paraesthesia) which often resolves spontaneously

4

How does MS appear macroscopically?

Well demarcated plaques in white matter; acute lesions tend to be pink, older lesions tend to be pearly grey

5

Four anatomical locations where MS plaques are seen commonly

Optic nerve
Periventricular white matter
Corpus callosum
Brainstem
Spinal cord

6

What are the three main histological features of MS?

Demyelination
Inflammation (perivascular)
Gliosis

7

Most common cause of dementia

Alzheimer's disease

8

Major macroscopic pathological signs of AD

Cortical atrophy (with widening of sulci and narrowing of gyri)
Dilatation of ventricles (with secondary hydrocephalus)
Sparing of brainstem and cerebellum

9

Which lobes are particularly affected in AD?

Frontal and temporal

10

Major histological features of AD

Intracytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles (tau protein)
Amyloid beta plaques (extracellular)
Extensive neuronal loss
Amyloid angiopathy

11

Lewy body demenia has features of...

Both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease

12

What are the hallmarks of Lewy body dementia?

Hallucinations and fluctuating attention level

13

Pathological features of Lewy body dementia

Lewy bodies
Degeneration of substantia negra
Degeneration of cortical areas

14

What is the hallmark macroscopic feature of Huntingdon's disease?

Atrophy of the caudate nucleus (part of the basal ganglia)

15

What is the most common secondary dementia?

Vascular (multi-infarct dementia)

16

How can multi-infarct dementia be distinguished from Alzheimer's disease?

Abrupt onset; stepwise progression; history of hypertension/stroke; evidence of stroke on CT/MRI