Flashcards in Neuropathology 2- MS and dementia Deck (16):
What are demyelinating diseases characterised by?
Destruction of myelin with relative preservation of axons
Most common demyelinating disorder
Presentation of MS is usually...
Focal neurological deficit (such as optic neuritis, limp weakness, paraesthesia) which often resolves spontaneously
How does MS appear macroscopically?
Well demarcated plaques in white matter; acute lesions tend to be pink, older lesions tend to be pearly grey
Four anatomical locations where MS plaques are seen commonly
Periventricular white matter
What are the three main histological features of MS?
Most common cause of dementia
Major macroscopic pathological signs of AD
Cortical atrophy (with widening of sulci and narrowing of gyri)
Dilatation of ventricles (with secondary hydrocephalus)
Sparing of brainstem and cerebellum
Which lobes are particularly affected in AD?
Frontal and temporal
Major histological features of AD
Intracytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles (tau protein)
Amyloid beta plaques (extracellular)
Extensive neuronal loss
Lewy body demenia has features of...
Both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease
What are the hallmarks of Lewy body dementia?
Hallucinations and fluctuating attention level
Pathological features of Lewy body dementia
Degeneration of substantia negra
Degeneration of cortical areas
What is the hallmark macroscopic feature of Huntingdon's disease?
Atrophy of the caudate nucleus (part of the basal ganglia)
What is the most common secondary dementia?
Vascular (multi-infarct dementia)