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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (20):
1

Damage to one or more peripheral nerves, usually in association with a systemic cause (e.g. rheumatoid, vasculitis, diabetes)

Mononeuritis multiplex

2

Symptoms of Guillaine-Barre syndrome

Progressive ascending weakness (although usually proximal rather than distal)

3

Management of Guillaine-Barre syndrome (2)

IV immunoglobulin +/- mechnaical ventilation

4

Onset in puberty of weak legs and foot drop +/- sensory or reflex loss

Charcot-Marie tooth

5

Inheritance of CMT

Usually autosomal dominant

6

Mostly sensory neuropathies (2)

Diabetes
Renal failure/uraemia

7

Mixed neuropathies (5)

b12/folate deficiency
Thiamine deficiency
Vasculitis
SLE
Amyloidosis

8

What is implied by a positive Rombergs test?

Implies sensory (i.e. proprioception) ataxia rather than a cerebellar ataxia

9

What is Froment's sign?

Flexion of thumb when grasping a piece of paper, in order to compensate for weak adductor pollicus. Indicates ulner nerve palsy

10

Mechanisms of radial nerve palsy (2)

Humeral shaft fracture
"Saturday night palsy"

11

C5-C7 brachial plexus injury. What is this caused by and how does it present?

Erb's palsy, caused by shoulder dystocia. Arm in "waiter tip" position

12

C8-T1 injury. What is this caused by and what are the features?

Klumpke's palsy, excessive arm traction at birth. Claw hand, small muscle wasting

13

Which condition may co-exist with Klumpke's palsy?

Horner's syndrome

14

Major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (3)

Cortical atrophy with sparing of brainstem and cerebellum
Ventricular dilatation
Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta plaques

15

Pathological hallmarks of Lewy body dementia (3)

Lewy bodies (alpha-synuclein inclusions within the cytoplasm)
Degeneration of substantia negra
Degeneration of cortex

16

Symptoms of dementia (5)

Cognitive impairment
Mood disturbance
Apathy
Agitation
Wandering

17

What type of neurones are loss in AD? What areas? (4)

Cholinergic neurones

18

Pharmacological management of AD (2)

AChesterase inhibitors- rivastigmine, donepizil, galantamine
Memantine (anti-GABA)

19

Distinguishing features of Lewy body dementia? (2)

Hallucinations
Parkinsonian features

20

Distinguishing features of frontotemporal dementia? (2)

Disinhibition
Emotional unconcern