Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (20):
Damage to one or more peripheral nerves, usually in association with a systemic cause (e.g. rheumatoid, vasculitis, diabetes)
Symptoms of Guillaine-Barre syndrome
Progressive ascending weakness (although usually proximal rather than distal)
Management of Guillaine-Barre syndrome (2)
IV immunoglobulin +/- mechnaical ventilation
Onset in puberty of weak legs and foot drop +/- sensory or reflex loss
Inheritance of CMT
Usually autosomal dominant
Mostly sensory neuropathies (2)
Mixed neuropathies (5)
What is implied by a positive Rombergs test?
Implies sensory (i.e. proprioception) ataxia rather than a cerebellar ataxia
What is Froment's sign?
Flexion of thumb when grasping a piece of paper, in order to compensate for weak adductor pollicus. Indicates ulner nerve palsy
Mechanisms of radial nerve palsy (2)
Humeral shaft fracture
"Saturday night palsy"
C5-C7 brachial plexus injury. What is this caused by and how does it present?
Erb's palsy, caused by shoulder dystocia. Arm in "waiter tip" position
C8-T1 injury. What is this caused by and what are the features?
Klumpke's palsy, excessive arm traction at birth. Claw hand, small muscle wasting
Which condition may co-exist with Klumpke's palsy?
Major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (3)
Cortical atrophy with sparing of brainstem and cerebellum
Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid beta plaques
Pathological hallmarks of Lewy body dementia (3)
Lewy bodies (alpha-synuclein inclusions within the cytoplasm)
Degeneration of substantia negra
Degeneration of cortex
Symptoms of dementia (5)
What type of neurones are loss in AD? What areas? (4)
Pharmacological management of AD (2)
AChesterase inhibitors- rivastigmine, donepizil, galantamine
Distinguishing features of Lewy body dementia? (2)