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Flashcards in Neuropathology 1 Deck (17):
1

Primary change which takes place in the soma in response to axonic transection

Chromatolysis

2

Why are neurones extremely sensitive to hypoxia?

Cannot use anaerobic glycolysis

3

What is gliosis and what is the significance of it?

Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of astrocytes, in response to CNS damage. It's the most important indicator of CNS injury

4

What is the response of microglia to CNS injury? (3)

Proliferate, become enlarged and carry out neuronophagia of dead neurones

5

What is autoregulation?

Ability of the brain to maintain constant blood flow over a wide range of perfusion pressures

6

What provides the a) anterior and b) posterior circulations of the brain? How are these linked?

a) internal carotid
b) vertebral arteries
c) circle of willis

7

In what distribution are cerebral infarcts most common?

Distribution of the middle cerebral artery

8

Two possible effects of a cerebellar infarct

Ataxia
Intention tremor

9

How can haemorrhage cause stroke?

Compress blood vessels supplying the brain around the haemorrhage

10

What are "watershed" areas?

Arterial border zones- first to be deprived of blood supply during hypotensive episodes

11

What is the leading cause of stroke?

Thrombotic/embolic stroke

12

Where do most thromboses form?

Bifurcation of the common carotids, or in basilar artery

13

How can subarachnoid haemorrhage lead to brain infarct? (2)

Vasospasm (seen in 40%)
Mass effect of haematoma and raised ICP

14

Signs of subarchnoid haemorrhage (4)

Sudden onset severe headache
Vomiting
Loss of consciousness
Meningeal signs (neck rigidity)

15

How can subarachnoid haemorrhage cause acute hydrocephalus?

Interrupts the flow of CSF

16

What are the possible consequences of hypertension in the brain? (3)

Increased atheroma
Lacunar infarcts
Hypertensive encephalopathy (when upper limit of autoregulation is exceeded, e.g. eclampsia or malignant hypertension)

17

What can multiple lacunar infarcts be responsible for?

Vascular dementia