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Jason's MD2 Core Conditions > Anaemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaemia Deck (31)
0

purpose of transferrin?

protein transport for iron

1

what are the 3 main causes of anaemia?

blood loss
anaemia
impaired erythropoesis

2

purpose of ferritin?

iron storage protein

3

ferritin levels can be misleading how?

if inflammation, could be elevated to look normal even though they're really anaemic

4

what is Hepcidin?

balances storage and release, related to innate immunity

5

what is most common reason for iron deficiency WORLDWIDE? Australia?

hookworm
Aus: occult blood loss from PUD

6

what's important to look for in iron supplements?

50-60mg of elemental iron

7

3 ways to take iron:

PO
IM
IV

8

side effect of iron supplements?

constipation

9

how does anaemia of inflammation happen?

elevated hepciden, decrease EPO

10

how to differentiate iron deficiency vs. anaemia of chronic disease with lab results?

iron deficiency: lots of transferrin but no iron to transport
Anaemia of chronic: lots of ferritin but no transferrin to transport iron

11

5 tests for haemolysis?

Abnormal blood film/morphology
hyperbilirubinaemia (unconjugated)
increased LDH
increased reticulocytes
depressed haptoglobins

12

what does direct/indirect Coombs test do?

direct: tests for anti-red Ab bound to red cells
indirect: tests for free anti-red cell Abs

13

what 2 things do you see in blood film with microangiopathy?

red cell fragments
schistocytes

14

what 2 things you see in blood film with oxidative injury?

blister cells
bite cells

15

how does urine look with haemolysis? why?

NOT DARK
cause of unconjugated bilirubin can't cross glomeruli

16

what pathway does G6PD deficiency affect? what is the other enzyme pathway called?

G6PD affects the pentose phosphate shunt
other: glycolytic

17

what is jaundice without dark urine called?

acholuric

18

what is aplastic anaemia?

empty bone marrow

19

what is myelodysplasia?

disordered marrow, can't produce

20

body store of B12 is how long?

18 months

21

B12 deficiency affects stomach how?

increased risk of Ca stomach

22

what is myelofibrosis?

collagen in marrow

23

difference between thalassaemia and porphyrias?

thalassaemia: globin chains
porphyrias: haem molecule

24

3 kinds of haemoglobins and their chain numbers:

HbA: a2b2
HbF: a2y2
HbA2: a2d2

25

how many gene copies of alpha chains vs. beta chains?

2 sets for alpha
1set for betas

26

what is haemoglobin H?

beta-4 tetramers in alpha thallasaemia

27

when do you get gamma-4 tetramers in blood?

fetus has alpha thal

28

how to tell difference between thal minor and iron deficiency cause they're both microcytic and hypochromic:

-in thal minor for same degree of microcytosis: Red Cell Count RCCis relatively spared
-red cell distribution is increased in iron deficiency

29

what is HPLC? used for?

high performance liquid chromatography
to Dx thal or haemoglobinopathies

31

danger of thinking HgH is enough to Dx which Alpha Thal someone has or risk to fetus?

mother and father with aa/-- may not have lots of HgH but their unborn child has 1:4 chance for --/-- thal major
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