Cardiac Failure Flashcards Preview

Jason's MD2 Core Conditions > Cardiac Failure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Failure Deck (26)
1

What is cardiac failure?

cardiac output is insufficient for body's needs

2

usual cause of cardiac failure?

reduced systolic function

3

what does reduced systolic function lead to?

low ejection fraction

4

Cardiac output is determined by?

preload
heart rate
Contractility
afterload

5

Direction of hydrostatic?

out of capillary

6

direction of osmotic?

into capillary

7

Four causes of edema?

Increased venous pressure,
decreased osmotic pressure,
blocked lymphatics,
increased permeability

8

What causes increased cap permeability?

infection

9

what causes blocked lymphatics?

cancer

10

what causes Increased venous pressure,

heart failure

11

what causes decreased osmotic pressure,

plasma protein loss

12

increased Left Atrial venous pressure leads to?

pulmonary oedema

13

increased Right atrial venous pressure leads to?

peripheral oedema

14

Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system does what?

Na+ retention
K+loss
vasoconstriction
overall fluid retention to maintain cardiac output

15

what Is the role of the sympathetic nervous system in cardiac failure?

increased noradrenaline, long term is bad

16

4 causes of shortness of breath?

Cardiac
Respiratory
Anaemia
Poor Fitness

17

on examination, what's a big sign that it's cardiac failure?

increase JVP

18

what causes Cor Pulmonale?

Heart Failure due to Lung Disease: COPD, CF, pulmonary fibrosis, PE

19

What is the ejection fractions for left heart failure?

40-50% = mild
30-40% = moderate
<30% = severe

20

if normal systolic ejection fraction but still has SOB?

diastolic heart failure,
poor compliance of ventricle

21

3 examples of cardiac failure due to incrsed body needs?

thyrotoxicosis
anaemia
fistulae

22

how come high arterial pressures don't cause oedema?

cause of step down of pressures to arterioles/metarterioles

23

List the causes of congestive heart failure/CCF?

MADHATTERR
MI
Anaemia
Diabetes
hypertension
Arrythmia
thyrotoxicosis
Temperature
Emboli
Renal
Regular Drugs

24

2 kinds of pericardial disease?

1. pericardial tamponade
2. pericardial constriction

25

how do you get cor pulmonale?

long standing pulmonary fibrosis, CF, COPD, astha

26

what 3 causes a stiff ventricle/diastolic heart failure?

1. infact scar
2. chronic hypertension
3. ventricular hypertrophy