Diabetic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

Jason's MD2 Core Conditions > Diabetic Emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetic Emergencies Deck (29)
1

what size catheter average for adult male?

14-16 with 10cc balloons

2

3 things to remember when catheterizing?

1. don't push if much resistance
2. don't inflate balloon until you get urine return
3. look at their facial expressions

3

KETONE LEVELs in blood usually how much? How much is bad?

1.5 mmol is bad

4

what is the top 3 causes of ketoacidosis?

1. Inappropriate insulin therapy
2. new onset DM1
3. alcohol abuse

5

3 kinds of infections that can cause ketoacidosis?

pneumonia
speticaemia
UTI

6

4 principles of ketoacidosis treatment?

1. rehydration
2. correct electrolytes (Potassium)
3. insulin therapy (after K+ levels are WNL)
4. search for underlying cause

7

what do you use for ketoacidosis rehydration? any changes to the fluids once the glucose decreases?

Normal Saline (according to cardiac function)
Change to 5% dextrose when glucose <12mM

8

Regular Insulin regimen for ketoacidosis? IM vs. IV

IM: 0.1units/kg/hour
IV: 6-8 hourly initial, adjust re: BSLs

9

in ketoacidosis, what insulin do you switch to after acidosis is resolved?

SC insulin
Novorapid/Humalog
Glargine/detemir

10

normal potassium level?

3.5 - 5mM

11

what do you do re: insulin if K+ is below 3.5mM?

hold off on insulin
give 30mM/hour K+ until it's >3.5

12

if K+ is >5mM in ketoacidosis, what do you do?

don't give K+, give insulin, check K+ every hour

13

what do you do if K+ is between 3.5-5mM in ketoacidosis?

give 30mM KCl for every litre of fluid you give during rehydration

14

what do you need to make sure in the ketoacidosic patient before commencing K+ replacement?

make sure they're not anuric

15

other electrolytes that may need replacing in severe ketoacidosis (pH <6.8)?

Bicarb
Phosphate

16

why not give NaCO3 to all ketoacidosis patients?

will go alkalotic too fast

17

what is hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state?

there is enough insulin to prevent the ketoacidosis but liver is in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis>> raised levels

18

5 Features of Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State

severe hyperglycaemia
no ketoacidosis
profound dehydration
depressed sensorium/coma
>330 mOsm/KG

19

how to rehydrate someone in Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State?

2L hypotonic saline (0.45%) over 1-2 hours
then 1L 2-3 hourly

20

what if patient's osmolarity if <330mOsm?

may not be Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State
looks fora another cause

21

who dies more? ketoacidosis? or Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State?

Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State
mainly age and comorbidities problem

22

Type 2 diabetic usually gets what kind of hyperglycaemic emerg?

hyperosmolar state rather than ketoacidosis

23

how to patients usually present with hyperglycaemic emergencies?

mixed picture of Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State and ketoacidosis

24

how can someone be alert and talking if they have a glucose of 1.8?

may not feel it due to autonomic neuropathy

25

someone with hypoglycaemic who is unconscious, 2 ways

1. IV 50% dextrose
2. IM/SC glucagon 1mg

Recheck glucose 20-30min later

26

if someone is unconscious with hypoglycaemia, when will they wake up once you've corrected it?

proportional to the time they've been unconscious for

27

what diebetic drugs can cause hypos?

sulfonylureas - glibenclamide

28

what population tends to suffer more hypos with glibenclamide?

elderly with renal impairment

29

someone with diabetes has a 'sick day', what to do?

still take their long acting insulin and short acting PRN