ANAT: Joints of Upper Extremity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANAT: Joints of Upper Extremity Deck (43):

Sternoclavicular (SC) joint attachment

medial clavicle, sternal manubrium, and 1st costal cartilage
-Articular disc which attaches inferiorly to the 1st costal cartilage and superiorly to the medial clavicle. Anterior/posterior edges attach to fibrous joint capsule (resists superior and medial clavicular dislocation)


Intrinsic ligaments of the SC joint

thickening of the anterior, posterior and superior capsule


Extrinsic ligaments of the SC joint

Costoclavicular ligament, Interclavicular ligament


Costoclavicular ligament

attaches the inferomedial clavical to the 1st costocartilage and rib
*Resists superior dislocation of the clavicle


Interclavicular ligament

Spans the superior manubrium (adjacent clavicles)
*Resists lateral dislocation of the clavicle


SC joint motion

Multiaxial; elevation/depression of pectoral girdle, protraction/retraction of PG, rotary motion of above movements


Acromioclavicular (AC) joint attachments

Plane-type joint
Between the lateral clavicle and acromion process of the scapula


Acromioclavicular ligament

Intrinsic ligament of the AC joint, thickening of superior joint capsule
Resists superior dislocation


Coracoclavicular ligament

Extrinsic ligament of the AC joint, main supporting ligament.
Runs from inferolateral clavicle to the coracoid process of the scapula
Two portions: conoid ligament - Medial, vertically oriented, extends from root of the coracoid process
Trapezoid ligament - lateral, horizonitally oriented extending from body of coracoid process
*Resists superior dislocation of the clavicle - suspends scapula, and weight of the upper extremity


Acromioclavicular joint motion

gliding movement of the AC joint enable rotation of the scapula


Glenohumeral joint attachment

Ball-and-socket synovial joint, between glenoid fossa of scapula and head of humerus


Glenoid labrum

fibrocartilaginous ring around the glenoid fossa; slightly deepens fossa


Fibrous joint capsule of the glenohumeral joint

Attaches to margins of the glenoid fossa and the anatomical neck of the humerus, this and loose except at extremes of motion
Pierced by biceps brachii tendon


Intrinsic ligaments of the glenohumeral joint

superior, middle, and inferior glenohumeral ligaments
-reinforce the anterior capsule
Coracohumeral ligament


Coracohumeral ligament

-Intrinsic ligament of GH joint
attaches to base of the coracoid process and greater tubercle of the humerus
free at anterior margin but fuses with joint capsule posteriorly
*Reinforces the superior capsule and resists inferior dislocation


Coracoacromial ligament

Extrinsic ligament of GH joint
Attaches at coracoid process and acromion to form the coracoacromial arch
*Prevents superior dislocation of the humerus


Transverse humeral ligament

Extrinsic GH joint ligament
bridges the intertubercular groove - creates a canal for the tendon of the long head of biceps brachii m.


Subscapular bursa

Between the tendon of subscapularis m. and the neck of the scapula
Communicates with the synovial cavity of the glenohumeral joint


Subacromial (subdeltoid) bursa

Superior to the supraspinatus tendon
Does not normally communicate with the joint cavity
-Reduces friction of the overlaying coracoacromial arch and the deltoid m.


Adhesive capsulitis (GH)

Inflammation of the rotator cuff tendons resulting in abnormal thickening of the joint capsule = reduced range of motion


Calcified tendonitis (GH)

"frozen shoulder"
Calcium deposits in the rotator cuff tendons = shoulder pain


Glenohumeral joint motions

multiaxial, most mobile in the body.
-Abduction limited by the greater tubercle of the humerus, Extension limited by muscular and ligamentous tension
Joint integrity depends on the rotator cuff mm.


Elbow joint

Hinge-type joint
Two articulations:


Humeroulnar articulation

Between the trochlea of humerus and the trochlear notch of the Ulna
-Permits flexion/extension and minimal abduction/adduction


Humeroradial articulation

Between the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus
-Permits flexion/extension and rotation


Intrinsic ligaments of the elbow joint

Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament
Radial (lateral) collateral ligament


Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament

Strong, triangular ligament (intrinsic)
Extends from the medial epicondyle to the coronoid and olecranon processes of the Ulna


Radial (lateral) collateral ligament

Fan-shaped intrinsic ligament
Extends from the lateral epicondyle to and blends distally with the annular ligament of the proximal radial joint


Radioulnar joints

Proximal radioulnar joint
Middle (intermediate) radioulnar joint
Distal radioulnar joint


Proximal radioulnar joint

Pivot-synovial joint between the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna. Synovial cavity is continuous with the elbow joint


Annular ligament

Holds radial head in contact with the radial notch of the Ulna
Forms osseotendinous ring within which the radial head rotates


Middle (intermediate) radioulnar joint

Mobile radioulnar syndesmosis
Formed by the interosseous membrane uniting the radial and ulnar shafts


Distal radioulnar joint

Pivot-type synovial joint between the ulnar head and the ulnar notch of the distal radius
contains an articular disc which attaches the styloid process of the ulna to the medial edge of the ulnar notch of the radius. Also separates the synovial cavity of the distal radioulnar joint from the radiocarpal joint.
- Forms a pivot for the distal radius during supination/pronation


Radioulnar joints function

Support pronation/supination


Wrist joint

Condyloid synovial joint between the distal radius, triangular ligament, and the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral
-Fibrous joint capsule extends from the distal radius and ulna to the proximal carpal bones


Triangular ligament of the wrist

prevents the ulnar head from articulating with the proximal carpals. When the wrist is fully adducted, force is transmitted from the triquetrum to the ulna


Intrinsic ligaments of the wrist joint

Palmar and dorsal radiocarpal ligaments
Radial collateral ligament
Ulnar collateral ligament


Palmar and dorsal radiocarpal ligaments

Thickenings of the anterior and posterior fibrous capsule
*Limits extension and flexion of the wrist


Radial collateral ligament of the wrist

Radial styloid process to scaphoid;
*Limits adduction


Ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist

Ulnar styloid process to triquetrum and pisiform; helps limit abduction


Wrist joint motion

Limited rotation; is effectively biaxial
Extension/flexion; abduction/adduction, circumduction


Transverse carpal (midcarpal) joint

A composite joint formed by multiple articulations between the proximal and distal carpal rows
*Functions as a condyloid joint
head of the capitate and hamate articulate with a socket formed by the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones
Reinforced by multiple intercarpal ligaments


Transverse carpal joint motion

limited gliding in all planes, and contributes significantly to all wrist movements