FOM 24: Muscle Fxn and Superficial Back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FOM 24: Muscle Fxn and Superficial Back Deck (52):
0

ABduction/ADduction

in a coronal plane around an anterioposterior axis

1

Flexion/Extension

in a sagittal plane around a transverse axis

2

Rotation

in a horizontal (transverse plane) around a vertical axis

3

Concentric contraction

Active muscle fibers decrease in length
Typical movement of an agonist mover - fxns to produce the desired action

4

Eccentric Contraction

Active muscle fibers increase in length
Typical of an antagonist muscle, produces movement opposite to the agonist
*Allows for smooth, controlled movement by counteracting the force applied by the agonist muscle.

5

Isometric Contraction

Active muscle fibers maintain same length
Typical of a Fixator muscle - stabilizes and supports and element against the pull of an agonist.
EX: scapula fixator muscles

6

Synergistic contraction

Muscle contraction tends to produce motion around all possible axes
*Neutralizers are muscles whose contraction prevents undesireable action.
*Synergists are muscle whose contraction aides in producing desired motion while at the same time neutralizing undesired motion

7

Nerve lesions

usually a nerve injury that either partially or completely denervates a muscle resulting in muscle weakness or complete loss of function, respectively

8

Neutral position

point of balance in which all the motions characteristic of a joint may occur; typically involves minimal ligamentous tension, and the least muscular effort to maintain

9

Muscular imbalances

occurs when some muscles across a joint are weakened or paralyzed

10

Pectoral girdle

functional unit of the clavicle and scapula
*articulates with axial skeleton at the sternoclavicular (SC) joint (only bony articulation between pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton)
Can perform: Elevation/depression, protraction/retraction, superior/inferior rotation

11

Glenohumeral joint

between the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humeral head

12

Intrinsic (deep) back muscles

- derived from the embryonic dorsal muscle mass
- innervated by dorsal primary rami
- Blood supply from dorsal branches of segmental arteries
- Movement of the trunk and head, and maintains posture

13

Extrinsic (superficial) back muscles

- Derived from the embryonic ventral muscle mass
- Innervated by ventral primary rami
- Blood supply from branches of subclavian and axillary aa.
- produce movement of the upper extremity and assist in respiration

14

Trapezius m. ORIGIN

Medial third of superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, ligamentum nuchae, T1-T12 spinous processes

15

Trapezius m. INSERTION

Spine of scapula, acromian, lateral third of clavicle

16

Trapezius m. ACTIONS

Elevates and retracts pectoral girdle, superiorly rotates and stabilizes scapula

17

Trapezius m. INNERVATION

Spinal accessory n. (CN XI) --> motor
C3-C4 ventral rami via cervical plexus --> sensory

18

Trapezius m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Transverse cervical a.

19

Latissimus Dorsi m. ORIGIN

T7-L5 spinal processes, thoracolumbar fascia, dorsal sacrum, iliac crest

20

Latissimus Dorsi m. INSERTION

Floor of intertubercular sulcus of the humerus

21

Latissimus Dorsi m. ACTION

Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus. Depresses, retracts, and inferiorly rotates scapula.

22

Latissimus Dorsi m. INNERVATION

Thoracodorsal n.

23

Latissimus Dorsi m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Thoracodorsal a.

24

Rhomboideus major m. ORIGIN

T2-T5 Spinous processes

25

Rhomboideus major m. INSERTION

medial border of the scapula

26

Rhomboideus major m. ACTION

Retracts and elevates the pectoral girdle, inferiorly rotates scapula, stabilizes scapula

27

Rhomboideus major m. INNERVATION

Dorsal scapular n. (C5)

28

Rhomboideus major m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Dorsal scapular a.

29

Rhomboideus minor m. ORIGIN

C7-T1 spinous processes

30

Rhomboideus minor m. INSERTION

Medial border of the scapula superior to Rhomboideus major m.

31

Rhomboideus minor m. ACTION

Retracts and elevates the pectoral girdle, inferiorly rotates the scapula, stabilizes scapula

32

Rhomboideus minor m. INNERVATION

Dorsal scapular n. (C5)

33

Rhomboideus minor m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Dorsal scapular a.

34

Levator scapulae m. ORIGIN

Slips from posterior tubercles of C1-C4 transverse processes

35

Levator scapulae m. INSERTION

Superior angle of the scapula

36

Levator scapulae m. ACTIONS

Elevates pectoral girdle, inferiorly rotates scapula, extends and laterally flexes neck

37

Levator scapulae m. INNERVATION

C3-C4 ventral rami via cervical plexus and dorsal scapular n. (C5)

38

Levator scapulae m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Dorsal scapular a.

39

Serratus posterior superior m. ORIGIN

C7-T3 spinous processes

40

Serratus posterior superior m. INSERTION

superior borders of ribs 2-5

41

Serratus posterior superior m. ACTIONS

Elevates ribs 2-5

42

Serratus posterior superior m. INNERVATION

Segmentally by ventral primary rami (intercostal nerves)

43

Serratus posterior superior m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Branches of the posterior intercostal aa.

44

Serratus posterior inferior m. ORIGIN

T11-L3 spinous processes

46

Serratus posterior inferior m. INSERTION

Inferior borders of ribs 9-12

47

Serratus posterior inferior m. INNERVATION

segmentally by ventral primary rami (intercostal nn.)

47

Transverse cervical a.

originates from the thyrocervical trunk off the subclavian a.
- Courses posteriorly in the neck to the levator scapulae m.
- Deep to trapezius m. giving ascending and descending branches that course with branches of the spinal accessory n. (CN XI) and C3-C4 ventral rami

48

Serratus posterior inferior m. BLOOD SUPPLY

Branches of posterior intercostal aa.

49

Dorsal scapular a.

Arises as a branch of the transverse cervical a. (50%) or a direct branch of the subclavian a. (50%)
- Courses posteriorly in the neck deep to the levator scapulae m.
- Deep to the Rhomboideus major and minor mm. with dorsal scapular n.

50

Thoracodorsal a.

From the subscapular a. (a branch of the axillary a.)
- Courses with the thoracodorsal n.
- Deep to the Latissimus dorsi m. (entering near humeral attachment)

51

Serratus posterior inferior m. ACTION

depresses ribs 9-12