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Year 1 - Respiratory (DP) > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (45):
0

Where does the lower respiratory tract start?

Level of C6 - trachea

1

Where can the trachea be palpated?

Jugular notch (of manubriun)

2

What lies just superior to the trachea in the jugular notch?

Isthmus of the thyroid (anterior to tracheal cartilages 2-4)

3

How many lobes are in each lung?

Right - 3
Left - 2

4

How do ribs articulate with the vertebrae?

Via the rib head - with body of vertebrae of same number and with superior vertebrae

Via the rib tubercle - with transverse process of same number vertebrae

5

What is the purpose of the costal groove?

For the NVB

6

What blood vessels supply the intercostal spaces?

Anterior aspect
- Branches of the internal thoracic artery
Posterior aspect
- Posterior intercostal arteries (paired branches of the thoracic aorta)

7

What are the drainage vessels for the intercostal spaces?

Anterior aspect
- Paired internal thoracic veins
Posterior aspect
- Posterior intercostal veins drain to the azygous vein on the right and the hemiazygous vein on the left (drains to azygous)

8

What arteries supply the lung tissue?

Brachial arteries (from thoracic aorta)

9

What nerves supply the intercostal spaces?

Anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves T1-T11 (intercostal nerves)

10

What is the name of the T12 anterior rami?

Subcostal nerves

11

What are the branches of the intercostal nerves?

Lateral and anterior cutaneous

12

What do the posterior rami of the thoracic spinal nerves supply?

Bones, joints, deep back muscles and skin

13

What is the function of the rami communicantes?

Connect intercostal and subcostal nerves to sympathetic trunk

14

What are the names of the apertures in the diaphragm?

Caval opening (for IVC)
Oesophageal hiatus
Aortic hiatus

15

Where does the diaphragm connect to?

Sternum
Lower six ribs
L1-L3 vertebral bodies

16

What is the phrenic nerve made of?

C3, C4 and C5 anterior rami

17

What is the route of the phrenic nerve?

Passes over anterior surface of scale is anterior
Descends over lateral aspect of fibrous pericardium

18

The subclavian artery is anterior to the subclavian vein. True or false?

False. The vein is anterior to the artery.

19

Where does the cephalic vein pass?

In the deltopectoral groove

20

What is the role of the latissimus dorsi?

Shoulder movement

21

Which muscle anchors the medial borders of the scapula to ribs 1-8?

Serrated anterior

22

Paralysis of which nerve results in a "winged scapula"?

Long thoracic nerve (branch of the brachial plexus)

23

Where do we auscultate the middle lung lobe?

Between ribs four and six in mid-clavicular and mid-axillary lines on the right side of the chest

24

Where is the oblique fissure situated?

Anteriorly - rib 6
Posteriorly - T3

25

At what vertebral level is the lung base?

T11

26

What is the sequence of events in coughing?

1. Deep inspiration
2. Adduction of vocal cords
3. Anterolateral abdo wall muscle contraction
4. Vocal folds abduct
5. Soft palate tense and elevates

27

What cranial nerves are stimulated in coughing?

ix and x

28

What are the accessory muscles of deep inspiration?

Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Sternocleidomastoid
Scalenus anterior, medium and posterior

29

What structures are contained in the carotid sheath?

Vagus nerve
Internal carotid artery
Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein

30

What are the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles?

Rectus abdominis
External obliques
Internal obliques
Transverse abdominus
Seratus anterior

31

What is the linea alba?

The midline communication of the aponeurosis of each external oblique

32

Where do the aponeuroses begin?

Linea semilunaris

33

Which aponeuroses form the rectus sheath?

Both obliques
Transverse abdominus

34

Which intercostal nerves become thoracoabdominal nerves?

7th-11th

35

Which nerve does the subcostal nerve communicate with?

Iliohypogastric nerve of the lumbar plexus

36

What is the name for the internal tracheal bifurcation?

Carina

37

How can a pneumothorax be distinguished from a tension pneumothorax?

A tension pneumothorax will show mediastinal shift on CXR

38

Management of large pneumothorax?

Thoracentesis

39

Describe the location of the safe triangle for a chest tube

Anterior border of latissimus dorsi
Posterior border of pectoralis major
Axial lines sup. to nipple

40

What is VATS?

Video Assisted Thorascopic Surgery

41

What is chemical pleurodesis?

Talc slurry added to cavity of produce adhesion

42

Where do the inguinal ligaments attach?

Between ASIS and pubic tubercle

43

Where do lateral chest quadrants drain (lymph)?

Unilaterally to axillary nodes

44

Where do the medial chest quadrants drain to (lymph)?

Bilaterally to the parasternal nodes