Flashcards in Asthma Deck (20):
How do we treat a moderate asthma attack?
10 puffs of salbutamol (4 initial puffs, 2 every 2 minutes)
5mg neb. salbutamol
10mg neb. terbutaline
40mg oral prednisolone
What is the treatment of a severe acute asthma attack?
Initially as for a moderate attack
With salbutamol, 0.5mg neb. ipratropium
IF POOR RESPONSE
5mg/kg IV aminophylline
What is the treatment and step-up treatment for COPD?
SABA or SAMA initially
If FEV1 > 50% - LABA or LAMA
If FEV1 < 50% - LABA + ICS or LAMA + ICS (try LABA + LAMA if ICS declined)
If above fails, LABA + LAMA + ICS
If give a LAMA at any point discontinue SAMA use
What are three examples of LABAs?
Indacterol (an ultra LABA)
What are some examples of SAMAs?
What are some examples of LAMAs?
What are some side effects of salbutamol?
When is salmeterol useful?
When are CysLT1 antagonists used?
In antigen-induced and exercise-induced asthma
What are two examples of CysLT1 antagonists?
How do xanthines work?
Inhibit enzymes inactivating cAMP and cGMP (and hence allowing relaxation)
Why are glucocorticoids used in asthma?
How do glucocorticoids work?
Deacetylation of histones - prevents transcription of inflammatory genes (Th2 cytokines)
Prevent IgE formation
Prevent eosinophil influx
What are the side effects of inhaled steroids?
How does Omalizumab work?
Prevents IgE attachment to FcEpsilon receptors
Decreased mast cell response in allergic asthma
What symptoms are present in asthma?
How is asthma diagnosed?
Hx and exam
Reversed on inhaled SABA
When is chromoglycate effective?
Prevention of asthma in atopic children
When would H1-receptor antagonists be used?
If there is a known allergic trigger