Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Principles (Own) > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (104):
1

Name the anterior surface of the wrist

Volar

2

Name the anterior surface of the hand

Palmar

3

Name the anterior surface of the tongue

Ventral

4

Name the the inferior surface of the foot

Plantar

5

Ipsilateral

On the same side of the body

6

Unilateral

On one side of the body

7

Contralateral

On opposite sides

8

Supranation

Palm returning to the anatomical position

9

Pronation

Palm rotating posteriorly from anatomical position

10

What are the four basic tissue types

Muscle, epithelium, nerves and connective tissue

11

What are the three different types of joints?

Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial

12

What are the two types of fibrous joint?

Syndesmoses - fibrous membrane between two bones
Sutures - between bones of the skull

13

What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?

Primary - epiphyseal growth plates
Secondary - Intervertebral discs

14

What are the five types of synovial joints?

Pivot, hinge, ball and socket, biaxial and plane

15

What is subluxation?

Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces

16

What is dislocation?

Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces

17

What are the important bony features and bones involved in the TMJ joint?

Articular tubercle
Temporal bone
Mandibular fossa
Head of the left condylar process of the mandible

18

Where is bone marrow found and describe the bone here

Inner medulla - spongy bone

19

What is the periosteum?

Fibrous connective tissue sleeve which is well vascularised and innervated

20

Name the regions in the bone starting proximal to distal

Epiphysis
Epiphyseal growth plate
Metaphysis
Diaphysis

21

Name the five classifications of bones

Flat bones - skull
Long bones - humerus
Irregular bones - vertebrae
Sesamoid bones - patella
Short bones - carpal and tarsal

22

what makes up the axial skeleton?

Skull, neck and trunk (chest abdomen and back)

23

What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

Pectoral griddle, upper limbs, lower limns and pelvic griddle

24

Which foramen does the spinal chord pass through in the skull and then in the vertebrae?

Foramen magnum
Vertebral foramen

25

Name the 5 sections of the vertebral column and how many vertebrae each includes

Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacral - 5
Coccygeal - 4
= 33 in total

26

What do spinal nerves emerge through?

Intervertebral foramen

27

What is unique about C1 and what is its name?

Atlas - doesn't have a body or spinous process

28

What is unique about C2 and what is it called?

Axis - has an odontoid process

29

What is unique about C7 and what is it called?

Vertebrae prominens - first palpable vertebrae in most people

30

What is the pelvic griddle made up of?

2 hipbones and the sacrum

31

What are the two different layers of the serous pericardium?

parietal and visceral

32

What is the difference between haemopericardium and cardiac tamponade?

Haemopericardium is when blood fills the pericardial cavity, cardiac tamponade is when there's so much blood it stops beating

33

Name the three layers of the heart

Endocaridum, myocardium and epicardium

34

What is fibrillation?

Uncoordinated contraction of myocytes that results in insufficient pumping

35

What are the three different types of muscles and their typical characteristics?

Skeletal - voluntary and striated
Smooth - involuntary and non-striated
Cardiac - involuntary and striated

36

Structure of skeletal muscle

fascicle - muscle fibre - myofibrils - actin and myosin

37

Name the 5 types of skeletal muscle

Circular - orbicular oris
Pennate - deltoids
Fusiform - bicep brachia
Flat with aponeurosis - external oblique
Quadrate - Rectus abdominus

38

What are the two main reflexes involved in skeletal muscle?

Stretch reflex and flexion withdrawal reflex

39

What is paralysis?

When the muscle cannot contract as it is without a functioning motor nerve

40

What is spasticity of a muscle?

The muscles are in tact and have a functioning motor nerve but the descending controls from the brain don't work

41

Define atrophy

Cells size decreases

42

Define Hypertrophy

Cell size increases

43

What are the 3 compartments of the leg and thigh?

Leg - anterior, posterior and lateral
Thing - anterior medial and posterior

44

What are the two compartments of the arm and forearm?

Anterior and posterior

45

What does the pelvic floor separate?

The pelvic cavity and perineum

46

What makes up the roof of the pelvic cavity?

The peritoneum

47

Where is the pouch of douglas?

Between the rectum and uterus

48

What is the vesico-uterine pouch between?

Bladder and uterus

49

How is female sterilisation achieved?

Tube ligation of both uterine tubes which are clipped (difficult to reverse)

50

How is male sterilisation achieved?

Cutting of the vas deferens (easier to reverse as it is superficial)

51

Describe the path of sperm

Sperm develops in the testis - vas deferens - sermatic cord through inguinal canal - pelvic cavity - ejaculatory duct - prostate gland - urethra

52

What is semen composed of?

Sperm and seminal fluid

53

What makes up the ejaculatory duct?

Vas deferens and seminal gland

54

What does the spermatic cord contain?

Vas deferens, testicular artery and pam-uniform plexus of veins

55

What makes up the URT?

nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx

56

What makes up the LRT?

Trachea, left and right main bronchus, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli

57

What happens at C6?

Pharynx becomes oesophagus
Larynx becomes trachea

58

Name the supporting cartilage of the larynx

Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and 2 arytenoid cartilages

59

Where is the pleural cavity?

Between the parietal and visceral pleura

60

What are the joints of breathing?

Costovertebral
Costochondral
Sternocostal

61

Where does the oesophagus pierce the diaphragm?

T10

62

Intraperitoneal organs

Liver and gallbladder
Stomach
Spleen
Parts of small and large intestine

63

Retroperitoneal organs

Kidneys
Adrenal glands
Pancreas
Parts of small and large intestine

64

Foregut organs

Oesophagus to mid duodenum
Liver and gallbladder
Spleen
1/2 of pancreas

65

Arterial supply to foregut

Coeliac trunk

66

Venous drainage to foregut

Splenic vein

67

Lymph drainage for foregut

Splenic nodes to coeliac nodes

68

Midgut organs

Mid-duodenum to proximal 2/3rd of transverse colon
1/2 of pancreas

69

Arterial supply to midgut

Superior mesenteric artery

70

Venous drainage for midgut

Superior mesenteric vein

71

Lymph drainage for midgut

Superior mesenteric nodes

72

Hindgut organs

Last 1/3rd of transverse colon to proximal 1/2 of anal canal

73

Arterial supply to hindgut

Inferior mesenteric artery

74

Venous drainage for hindgut

Inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein

75

Lymph drainage for hindgut

Inferior mesenteric nodes

76

Muscles which close the jaw

Temporalis, masseter and medial pterygoid

77

Muscle which opens the jaw

Lateral pterygoid

78

collection of nerve cells in the CNS

Nucleus

79

Collection of nerve cells in the PNS

Ganglion

80

Bundle of axons in the CNS

Tract

81

Bundle of axons in the PNS

Nerve

82

Where dose the conus medullaris occur?

L1/L2, end of the spinal cord

83

Where is grey matter in the brain?

On the outside, white is the inside

84

What does white matter contain?

Axons

85

What does grey matter contain?

cell bodies

86

Where are spinal nerves located?

In the intervertebral foramen

87

Where do sympathetic nerves exit?

T1-L2

88

What is the hypothalamus part of?

The Diencephalon

89

Where is the pituitary gland?

Pituitary gland of the ethmoid fossa

90

What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?

Infundibulum

91

What is the main endocrine gland of the body?

Pituitary gland

92

What is the function of the posterior pituitary gland?

Manufactures oxytocin and vasopressin

93

What is the function of the hypothalamus gland?

Makes releasing and inhibitory proteins

94

What is the function of the anterior pituitary gland?

GH
Prolactin
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Adrenocortrophic hormone
Lutenising hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone

95

What is the function of the thyroid gland?

Uses iodine to manufacture trioclothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

96

What is the function of the 4 parotid glands?

Parathyroid hormone which controls calcium in the blood

97

Where is the pancreas?

L1/L2

98

What does the adrenal cortex produce?

Glucocorticoids
Mineralcorticoids
Androgens

99

What does the adrenal medulla produce?

Adrenaline and noradrenaline

100

Upper urinary tract

Kidneys and ureters

101

Lower urinary tract

Bladder and urethra

102

Where are the kidneys located?

Retroperitoneal, under rib 11 and 12

103

What is the renal hilum composed of?

Ureter and renal artery and vein

104

Where does the ureter constriction occur?

Pelviureteric junction
Crossing at common iliac artery
Uteric orrifice