Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (104):
Name the anterior surface of the wrist
Name the anterior surface of the hand
Name the anterior surface of the tongue
Name the the inferior surface of the foot
On the same side of the body
On one side of the body
On opposite sides
Palm returning to the anatomical position
Palm rotating posteriorly from anatomical position
What are the four basic tissue types
Muscle, epithelium, nerves and connective tissue
What are the three different types of joints?
Fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial
What are the two types of fibrous joint?
Syndesmoses - fibrous membrane between two bones
Sutures - between bones of the skull
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
Primary - epiphyseal growth plates
Secondary - Intervertebral discs
What are the five types of synovial joints?
Pivot, hinge, ball and socket, biaxial and plane
What is subluxation?
Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces
What is dislocation?
Complete loss of contact between articular surfaces
What are the important bony features and bones involved in the TMJ joint?
Head of the left condylar process of the mandible
Where is bone marrow found and describe the bone here
Inner medulla - spongy bone
What is the periosteum?
Fibrous connective tissue sleeve which is well vascularised and innervated
Name the regions in the bone starting proximal to distal
Epiphyseal growth plate
Name the five classifications of bones
Flat bones - skull
Long bones - humerus
Irregular bones - vertebrae
Sesamoid bones - patella
Short bones - carpal and tarsal
what makes up the axial skeleton?
Skull, neck and trunk (chest abdomen and back)
What makes up the appendicular skeleton?
Pectoral griddle, upper limbs, lower limns and pelvic griddle
Which foramen does the spinal chord pass through in the skull and then in the vertebrae?
Name the 5 sections of the vertebral column and how many vertebrae each includes
Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacral - 5
Coccygeal - 4
= 33 in total
What do spinal nerves emerge through?
What is unique about C1 and what is its name?
Atlas - doesn't have a body or spinous process
What is unique about C2 and what is it called?
Axis - has an odontoid process
What is unique about C7 and what is it called?
Vertebrae prominens - first palpable vertebrae in most people
What is the pelvic griddle made up of?
2 hipbones and the sacrum
What are the two different layers of the serous pericardium?
parietal and visceral
What is the difference between haemopericardium and cardiac tamponade?
Haemopericardium is when blood fills the pericardial cavity, cardiac tamponade is when there's so much blood it stops beating
Name the three layers of the heart
Endocaridum, myocardium and epicardium
What is fibrillation?
Uncoordinated contraction of myocytes that results in insufficient pumping
What are the three different types of muscles and their typical characteristics?
Skeletal - voluntary and striated
Smooth - involuntary and non-striated
Cardiac - involuntary and striated
Structure of skeletal muscle
fascicle - muscle fibre - myofibrils - actin and myosin
Name the 5 types of skeletal muscle
Circular - orbicular oris
Pennate - deltoids
Fusiform - bicep brachia
Flat with aponeurosis - external oblique
Quadrate - Rectus abdominus
What are the two main reflexes involved in skeletal muscle?
Stretch reflex and flexion withdrawal reflex
What is paralysis?
When the muscle cannot contract as it is without a functioning motor nerve
What is spasticity of a muscle?
The muscles are in tact and have a functioning motor nerve but the descending controls from the brain don't work
Cells size decreases
Cell size increases
What are the 3 compartments of the leg and thigh?
Leg - anterior, posterior and lateral
Thing - anterior medial and posterior
What are the two compartments of the arm and forearm?
Anterior and posterior
What does the pelvic floor separate?
The pelvic cavity and perineum
What makes up the roof of the pelvic cavity?
Where is the pouch of douglas?
Between the rectum and uterus
What is the vesico-uterine pouch between?
Bladder and uterus
How is female sterilisation achieved?
Tube ligation of both uterine tubes which are clipped (difficult to reverse)
How is male sterilisation achieved?
Cutting of the vas deferens (easier to reverse as it is superficial)
Describe the path of sperm
Sperm develops in the testis - vas deferens - sermatic cord through inguinal canal - pelvic cavity - ejaculatory duct - prostate gland - urethra
What is semen composed of?
Sperm and seminal fluid
What makes up the ejaculatory duct?
Vas deferens and seminal gland
What does the spermatic cord contain?
Vas deferens, testicular artery and pam-uniform plexus of veins
What makes up the URT?
nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx and larynx
What makes up the LRT?
Trachea, left and right main bronchus, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
What happens at C6?
Pharynx becomes oesophagus
Larynx becomes trachea
Name the supporting cartilage of the larynx
Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage and 2 arytenoid cartilages
Where is the pleural cavity?
Between the parietal and visceral pleura
What are the joints of breathing?
Where does the oesophagus pierce the diaphragm?
Liver and gallbladder
Parts of small and large intestine
Parts of small and large intestine
Oesophagus to mid duodenum
Liver and gallbladder
1/2 of pancreas
Arterial supply to foregut
Venous drainage to foregut
Lymph drainage for foregut
Splenic nodes to coeliac nodes
Mid-duodenum to proximal 2/3rd of transverse colon
1/2 of pancreas
Arterial supply to midgut
Superior mesenteric artery
Venous drainage for midgut
Superior mesenteric vein
Lymph drainage for midgut
Superior mesenteric nodes
Last 1/3rd of transverse colon to proximal 1/2 of anal canal
Arterial supply to hindgut
Inferior mesenteric artery
Venous drainage for hindgut
Inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein
Lymph drainage for hindgut
Inferior mesenteric nodes
Muscles which close the jaw
Temporalis, masseter and medial pterygoid
Muscle which opens the jaw
collection of nerve cells in the CNS
Collection of nerve cells in the PNS
Bundle of axons in the CNS
Bundle of axons in the PNS
Where dose the conus medullaris occur?
L1/L2, end of the spinal cord
Where is grey matter in the brain?
On the outside, white is the inside
What does white matter contain?
What does grey matter contain?
Where are spinal nerves located?
In the intervertebral foramen
Where do sympathetic nerves exit?
What is the hypothalamus part of?
Where is the pituitary gland?
Pituitary gland of the ethmoid fossa
What connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland?
What is the main endocrine gland of the body?
What is the function of the posterior pituitary gland?
Manufactures oxytocin and vasopressin
What is the function of the hypothalamus gland?
Makes releasing and inhibitory proteins
What is the function of the anterior pituitary gland?
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone
What is the function of the thyroid gland?
Uses iodine to manufacture trioclothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
What is the function of the 4 parotid glands?
Parathyroid hormone which controls calcium in the blood
Where is the pancreas?
What does the adrenal cortex produce?
What does the adrenal medulla produce?
Adrenaline and noradrenaline
Upper urinary tract
Kidneys and ureters
Lower urinary tract
Bladder and urethra
Where are the kidneys located?
Retroperitoneal, under rib 11 and 12
What is the renal hilum composed of?
Ureter and renal artery and vein