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Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Deck (90)
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1

What structures does the head contain?

External and internal structures of the ears, nose and mouth
Internal structures of the sinuses

2

What structures does the neck contain?

Internal structures of the pharynx and layrnx

3

What are the 3 subdivisions of the ear?

External
Middle
Inner

4

What does the external ear contain?

Pinna (auricle)
External auditory canal
TM

5

What do the glands in the external ear secrete?

Cerumen

6

What is the TM?

Thin dividing wall between the external ear and the middle ear

7

What does the middle ear contain?

Eustachian tube
Tympanic cavity
Ossicle muscles, ligaments, and mucosal folds

8

What are the 3 bones of the middle ear?

Malleus
Incus
Stapes

9

How are the ears connected to the nose?

Eustachian tube

10

What does the inner ear contain?

Vestibule
Semicircular canals
Cochlea

11

What two branches of the external carotid artery supply the ear?

Posterior auricular artery
Superficial temporal artery

12

Nerves which supply the external ear

Trigeminal nerve
Greater auricular nerve
Lesser occipital nerve
Vagus nerve

13

Nerves which supply the middle ear

Chorda tympani nerve
Tympanic plexus nerve

14

Nerves which supply the inner ear

Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve

15

Lymphatic drainage of the ear

Pre-auricular nodes
Post-aruicular nodes
Parotid gland

16

What are the two functions of the ear?

Hearing
Balance

17

How does the pinna/auricle contribute to hearing?

Collects and directs sound waves traveling into the ear canal

18

How does the ear canal contribute to hearing?

Resonates sound waves
Preserves elasticity of TM via temperature & humidity control
Contains glands to produce wax
Cilia to protect from FB

19

How does the middle ear contribute to hearing?

Through the vibrations of the TM, malleus, incus, and stapes

20

What are the functions of the Eustachian tube?

Air exchange: maintain equal pressure
Excretory: drainage for middle ear
Defense: prevents infection

21

What are the two muscles that attach tot he ossicles?

Stapedius
Tensor tympanic

22

What does the cochlea contribute to hearing?

Organ of Corti, which sits on the basilar membrane, is stimulated to produce a "pitch"
Vestibulocochlear nerve transmits to brain

23

Which part of the cochlea transmits lower frequencies?

Apical portion

24

Which part of the cochlea transmits higher frequencies?

Basal end

25

Purpose for Semi-circular Canals

Maintain balance regardless of head position or gravity

26

What is the sensory receptor of the semi-circular canals?

Cupula

27

Functions of the Nose

Respiration
Air conditioning
Protection
Olfaction
Eustachian tube
Drainage

28

3 bones of the roof of the nasal cavity

Frontonasal
Ethmoidal
Sphenoidal

29

Floor of the nasal cavity consists of these bones

Palatine process of maxilla
Horizontal plate of palatine bone

30

Parts of the medial wall of the nasal cavity

Nasal septum
Ethmoid bone
vomer
Nasal crest of maxilla
Nasal crest of palatine