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Flashcards in ENT Pharmacology Deck (101)
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1

Viral Infection Therapy

Symptomatic
Analgesics
Saline irrigation
Topical steroids
Topical decongestants
Oral Decongestants

2

Common Bacteria that Cause Sinusitis

Strep pneumo
H. flu
Pseudomonas
Staph aureus
M. cat
Anaerobic bacteria

3

Antibiotics for Acute Sinusitis

Amoxicillin
Augmentin
Doxycycline
Clarithromycin
Zithromax
Levofloxacin
Bactrim

4

Warnings for using Amoxicillin

Monitor blood, renal and hepatic function for long term use

5

Adverse Reactions for Amoxicillin

GI upset
Hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, rash, SJS, yeast infections)

6

Which antibiotic is first line for acute sinusitis?

Amoxicillin

7

What antibiotic is best for penicillin allergy in acute sinusitis?

Augmentin

8

Contraindications for Augmentin

Severe renal impairment

9

Adverse Reactions for Augmentin

Diarrhea
Nausea
Abdominal pain
Rash
Urticaria
Vomiting
Vaginitis
Anaphylaxis

10

Augmentin Pregnancy Class

Class B

11

Warnings for Doxycycline

Hepatotoxicity
Hypersensitivity
Photosensitivity
Tissue Hyperpigmentations
Peds: tooth enamel hypoplasia or permanemtn tooth discoloration

12

Can you use doxycycline during pregnancy and why?

No- reduced bone growth

13

Special Alerts for Azithromycin

Elderly
QT prolongation
Electrolyte disturbances

14

Adverse Reactions for Aithromycin

Diarrhea
Abdominal pain
Anorexia
Cramping
Vomiting
Vaginitis
Acute renal failure

15

What is the drug of choice for acute sinusitis in penicillin allergic patients?

Azithromycin

16

How to treat uncomplicated acute sinusitis with mild symptoms?

Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
Oxymetazoline
NS nasal spray

17

Warnings for Psuedephedrine (Sudafed)

HTN
CVD
DM
Thyroid

18

Adverse Reactions for Psuedephedrine (Sudafed)

Nervousness
Dizziness
Insomnia

19

How long should antibiotics be prescribed for acute sinusitis?

5-7 days

20

Reasons for failure of treatment in acute sinusitis

Resistant pathogens
inadequate dosing
Structural abnormalities
Noninfectious etiology

21

When to refer sinusitis to ENT

Multiple episodes of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS)
Chronic rhino sinusitis with exacerbations of ABRS
Allergic rhinitis who may be candidates for immunotherapy

22

Urgent referral to ENT

Severe infection

23

Symptomatic Treatment of OM

Ibuprofen/Motrin
Auralgan
Topical aqueous lidocaine

24

Antibiotics vs. Observation in OM

25

Base Antibiotics Treatment on:

Clinical & microbiologic efficacy
Acceptability
SE & toxicity
Convenience of dosing schedule
Cost

26

Antibiotics for OM

Amoxicillin
Augmentin
Azithromycin
Clarithromycin
Erythromycin/Sulfisoxazole

27

Alternative Antibiotic Options for OM

Cefdinir (Omnicef)
Cefuroxime (Ceftin)

28

Recommended Duration of Treatment

29

Prophylaxis can be given when

3 infections in 3 months
4 episodes in 6 months
6 episodes in 12 months

30

Pain Control in OM

Auralgan
Tylenol/Ibuprofen