Ear Disorders Flashcards Preview

ENT > Ear Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ear Disorders Deck (119)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name the Disorders of the Ear

ET Dysfunction
Otitis Media
Otitis Externa
TM Perforation
Barotrauma
FB of the Ear
Cerumen Impaction
Mastoiditis
Acoustic Neuroma
Vertigo Syndromes
Presbycusis

2

How to Examine EAC?

Pull auricle up and back
Visualize canal
Look at the TM

3

Landmarks of the TM

Umbo
Handle of Malleus
Light reflex

4

Define Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

Failure of the system at the proximal end to regulate the middle-ear and mastoid gas cell system at its distal end

5

What system is affected by ET Dysfunction?

Auditory

6

Eustachian Tube Functions

Ventilation/regulation of middle ear pressure
Protection from nasopharyngeal secretions
Drainage of middle ear
Closed at rest
Open with yawning, swallowing, sneezing

7

What kind of hearing loss occurs with pressure differences

Conductive hearing loss

8

Cycle of dysfunction includes 1 of 3 functions of the system

Negative pressure develops in middle ear
Serous exudate drawn from middle ear or refluxed into middle ear
Infection of static fluid causes edema, inflammation, and obstruction

9

Epidemiology of ET Dysfunction

Children

10

Pediatric Considerations of ET Dysfunction

Horizontal ET
Shorter ET
Associated with URI, adenoid hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis, GERD

11

Risk Factors for ET Dysfunction

Tobacco/pollutant exposure
GERD
Allergy
Chronic sinusitis
OSA with CPAP
Adenoid hypertrophy
Neuromuscular disease
Family history
Altered immunity
Early onset of ET dysfunction in siblings
Native American, Inuit, or Australian Aborigine

12

Pediatric Risk Factors for ET Dysfunction

2nd-hand smoke
Prematurity/low birth weight
Young age
Craniofacial abnormalities
Daycare
Crowded living conditions
Low SES
Prone sleeping position
Prolonged bottle use

13

Common Associated Conditions with ET Dysfunction

Hearing loss
Middle ear effusion
Cholesteatoma
Allergic rhinitis
Chronic sinusitis
URI
Adenoid hypertrophy
GERD
Cleft palate
Down Syndrome
Obesity
Nasopharyngeal CA

14

Avoid decongestants in which patients

Hypertensive
Cardiac

15

Treatment of ET Dysfunction

Decongestants
Nasal steroids
2nd-generation H1 antihistamines
Antihistamine nasal sprays
Antibiotics

16

Types of Decongestants Used

Phenylephrine
Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
Oxymetazoline (Afrin)

17

Types of Nasal Steroids

Beclomethason (Beconase, Vancenase)
Budesonide (Rhinocort)
Flunisolide (Nasarel, Nasalide)
Fluticasone (Flonase)
Ciclesonide (Omnaris)

18

Types of 2nd-Generation H1 Antihistamines

Loratadine (Claritin)
Desloratidine (Clarinex)
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
Cetirizine (Zyrtec)

19

Types of Antihistamine Nasal Sprays

Olotpatadine (Patanase)
Asteline (Azelastine)

20

Antibiotic if ET Dysfunction with OM

Amoxicillin

21

Define Otitis Media

Infection of the middle ear with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion and signs of middle ear inflammation

22

Risk Factors of Otitis Media

Bottle feeds while supine
Daycare
Formula feeding
Smoking in house
Male gender
Family Hx of middle ear disease

23

Signs/Symptoms of Otitis Media

Earache
Tugging on ears
Fever
Accompanying URI symptoms
Irritability
Difficulty sleeping

24

Otoscopic Exam in OM

Decreased visibility of landmarks
Decrease TM mobility
Bulging TM
Opaque
Red
Pus in middle ear

25

Bacterial Culprits of OM

Strep pneumo (30-35%)
H. flu (20-25%)
M. cat (10-15%)

26

Beta-lactam Resistant OM Bacteria

H. flu
M. cat

27

Antibiotic Treatment of OM

Amoxicillin
Augmentin
Cephalosporins
Erythromycin
Azithromycin

28

Treatment of Pain/Fever in OM

Ibuprofen
Tylenol
Auralgan

29

Follow up

48-72 hours if failure to improve
14-21 days if resolved symptoms

30

Management of OM

Most improve spontaneously
Antibiotics
Analgesics