Animal Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Principles of Biology II > Animal Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Animal Nutrition Deck (87):
0

What are the THREE (3) DIET CLASSIFICATIONS?

Herbivores
Carnivores
Omnivores

1

These animals CONSUME AUTOTROPHS.

Herbivores

2

These animals CONSUME other ANIMALS.

Carnivores

3

These animals CONSUME AUTOTROPHS and other ANIMALS.

Omnivores

4

These animals are NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE to any of the three DIET CLASSIFICATIONS.

Opportunistic Feeders

5

What are the FOUR (4) classifications of FEEDING MECHANISMS?

Suspension Feeders
Substrate Feeders
Fluid Feeders
Bulk Feeders

6

Within this classification of FEEDING MECHANISMS, food PARTICLES are SIFTED from environment.

Suspension Feeders

7

Give TWO (2) examples of SUSPENSION FEEDERS.

Baleen Whales
Clams/Oysters

8

Within this classification of FEEDING MECHANISMS, the animal LIVES IN/ON their FOOD source.

Substrate Feeders

9

Give TWO (2) examples of SUBSTRATE FEEDERS.

Caterpillars
Maggots

10

Within this classification of FEEDING MECHANISMS the animal SUCKS NUTRIENT rich fluid from the host.

Fluid Feeders

11

Name FOUR (4) examples of FLUID FEEDERS.

ARTHROPODS:
• Mosquitos
• Bees

NON-ARTHROPOD:
• Hummingbirds
• Bats

12

Within this classification of FEEDING MECHANISMS, the animal consumes LARGE PIECES of FOOD.

Bulk Feeders

13

Name FIVE (5) ADAPTATIONS of BULK FEEDERS.

1.) Tentacles
2.) Claws
3.) Fangs
4.) Jaws
5.) Teeth

14

Give FIVE (5) examples of BULK FEEDERS.

1.) Snakes
2.) Spiders
3.) Octopus
4.) Dogs
5.) Humans

15

Although SPIDERS are classified as BULK FEEDERS, how can they be classified as SUSPENSION FEEDERS as well?

Their WEBS FILTER INSECTS flying through the air.

16

True or False: animals only require organic nutrients.

FALSE,

Animals require ORGANIC AND INORGANIC nutrients.

17

List FIVE (5) ORGANIC NUTRIENTS that animals require.

1.) Carbohydrates
2.) Proteins
3.) Lipids
4.) Nucleic Acids
5.) Vitamins

18

What INORGANIC nutrients do animals require? (2)

Water
Minerals

19

Why do animals require ORGANIC NUTRIENTS? (2)

Provide ENERGY
Build NEW MOLECULES

20

__________ energy POWERS CELLULAR PROCESSES after it is converted to ATP.

Chemical

21

True or False: essential nutrients are required from the diet is in their complete form.

TRUE,

ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS are required in their COMPLETE FORM.

22

What are the FOUR (4) groups of ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS.

1.) Amino Acids
2.) Fatty Acids
3.) Vitamins
4.) Minerals

23

True or False: animals can synthesize all amino acids.

FALSE,

Animals can synthesize MOST amino acids

24

How many ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS are required in an ANIMAL's DIET?

8

25

PROTEINS in ANIMAL PRODUCTS are _________ amino acids.

Complete

26

PROTEINS in PLANT PRODUCTS are _________ amino acids.

Incomplete

27

A diet with INSUFFICIENT amounts of essential AMINO ACIDS result in __________.

Protein Deficiency

*Ch.41 p.3 NOTES*

28

This is the result of a LONG-TERM ABSENCE of essential NUTRIENTS.

Malnutrition

29

____________ FATTY ACIDS CANNOT be made.

Unsaturated

30

Ample quantities of essential FATTY ACIDS can be found in ________, _______ and _______.

Seeds
Grains
Vegetables

31

VITAMINS are required in _______ amounts, usually ___ to ___ per day.

SMALL
0.001 mg to 100 mg

32

True or False: animals can synthesize vitamins.

FALSE,

Animals CANNOT synthesize VITAMINS

33

________ VITAMINS are EXCRETED in URINE and _______ VITAMINS are STORED in fat tissue.

Water-soluble
Fat-soluble

34

MINERALS are required in ______ amounts, about ___ to ___ per day.

Small
1 mg to 2,500 mg

35

True or False: animals can synthesize minerals.

FALSE,

Animals CANNOT SYNTHESIZE MINERALS

36

What are the FOUR (4) stages of FOOD PROCESSING?

1.) Ingestion
2.) Digestion
3.) Absorption
4.) Elimination

37

What are the TWO (2) forms of DIGESTION?

Mechanical
Chemical

38

Give an example of MECHANICAL DIGESTION.

Chewing

39

Give an example of CHEMICAL DIGESTION.

Enzymatic Hydrolysis

40

DIGESTIVE ENZYMES breakdown __________, __________ and __________.

Proteins
Fats
Carbohydrates

41

This is DIGESTION that occurs WITHIN a CELL.

Intracellular Digestion

*Ch.41 p.5 NOTES*

42

This is when DIGESTION occurs OUTSIDE of the CELLS.

Extracellular Digestion

43

This is a DIGESTIVE COMPARTMENT comprised of a SINGLE OPENING seen in INCOMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS.

Gastrovascular Cavity

44

This is a DIGESTIVE TUBE with TWO OPENINGS seen in a COMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

Alimentary Canal

45

What is an ADVANTAGE of a COMPLETE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM? (2)

1.) Deal with FOOD at VARIOUS STAGES
2.) Consume LARGER PARTICLES

46

What FOUR (4) DIGESTIVE GLANDS secrete DIGESTIVE JUICES into the canal?

1.) Salivary Glands
2.) Gallbladder
3.) Liver
4.) Pancreas

47

These are waves of SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION.

Peristalsis

48

These are RING-LIKE MUSCULAR VALVES that REGULATE passage of MATERIALS BETWEEN COMPARTMENTS.

Sphincters

49

SALIVA decreased from the SALIVARY GLANDS contain the ENZYME _________.

Amylase

50

AMYLASE BREAKS DOWN _______ and ______.

Starch
Glycogen

51

The TONGUE creates ________ ready GOR SWALLOWING.

BOLUS of food

52

This CONNECTS the ORAL CAVITY to the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA.

Pharynx

53

This is the FLAP of CARTILAGE that prevents food from going down the TRACHEA.

Epiglottis

54

This MOVES FOOD to the STOMACH by PERISTALSIS.

Esophagus

55

This is a SAC-LIKE organ for STORAGE and DIGESTION.

Stomach

56

The STOMACH can STORES up to ___ of FOOD and WATER.

2 Liters

57

The GASTRIC JUICES of the STOMACH contain _________ and ________.

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Pepsin

58

What is the pH of the HCl contained in the STOMACH's GASTRIC ACID?

2

59

What is the FUNCTION of the HCl in the STOMACH? (4)

1.) Break Down Food
2.) Kill Bacteria
3.) Denature Proteins
4.) Activate Pepsin

60

PARIETAL CELLS of the STOMACH SECRETE _________ and ________.

Hydrogen (H+)
Chloride (Cl-)

61

The CHIEF CELLS of the STOMACH release ____________.

Pepsinogen

62

True or False: pepsinogen is active pepsin.

FALSE,

PEPSINOGEN is INACTIVE PEPSIN

63

How often is the EPITHELIAL LAYER of the STOMACH replaced?

Every 3 days

64

This is an ACIDIC mix of FOOD and GASTRIC JUICES.

Chyme

*Ch.41 p.8 NOTES*

65

The STOMACH CHURNS every ___ seconds.

20

66

CHYME released into the SMALL INTESTINE by the PYLORIC SPHINCTER ___ to ___ HOURS after a meal.

2-6 hours

67

The SMALL INTESTINE is composed of what THREE (3) parts?

Duodenum
Jejunum
ileum

68

The DUODENUM is the first ___ cm of the SMALL INTESTINE.

25

69

Thus secretes BICARBONATE for neutralization and ENZYMES.

Pancreas

70

TRYPSIN and CHYMOTRYPSIN of the PANCREAS aid in _________ digestion.

Protein

71

PANCREATIC AMYLASE aid in __________ DIGESTION.

Carbohydrate

72

PANCREATIC LIPASES aid in _______ DIGESTION.

Fat

73

PANCREATIC NUCLEASES aid in __________ DIGESTION.

Nucleic Acid

74

This is the site of BILE PRODUCTION.

Liver

75

This AMPHILLIC MOLECULE acts as an EMULSIFIER.

Bile

76

BILE ACIDS form _________.

Micelles

77

This organ STORES BILE and RELEASES it DURING DIGESTION.

Gall Bladder

78

The SMALL INTESTINE has a _________ SURFACE AREA of ____.

Large
300 meters squared

79

These are FINGER-LIKE extensions that INCREASE SURFACE AREA in the the SMALL INTESTINE.

Villi

80

MICROVILLI are made of ___________ cells.

Epithelial

81

SIDE BY SIDE MICROVILLI are called __________.

The Brush Boarder

82

Nutrients must pass though a ___________ during NUTRIENT ABSORPTION.

Plasma Membrane

83

How do FATS ENTER the BLOOD STREAM?

Lymphatic System

*Ch.41 p.10 NOTES*

84

True or False: most nutrients enter directly into blood capillaries.

TRUE,

MOST nutrients enter DIRECTLY into blood CAPILLARIES.

85

This is a SMALL POUCH of the LARGE INTESTINE for FERMENTING PLANT MATERIAL.

Cecum

86

WATER ABSORPTION is the main FUNCTION of this component of the LARGE INTESTINE.

Colon