Internal/External Stimuli Flashcards Preview

Principles of Biology II > Internal/External Stimuli > Flashcards

Flashcards in Internal/External Stimuli Deck (25):
0

These are chemical signals that are produced WITHIN the body and move from one location to another.

Internal Stimuli

1

These are a variety of physical and biological stimuli produced OUTSIDE of the body.

External Stimuli

2

Received signals that activate intracellular pathways that lead to cellular responses.

Signal Transduction

3

What are the THREE (3) stages of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION?

Reception
Transduction
Response

4

This is the conversion of one form of energy to another.

Transduction

5

This STAGE of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION is the process by which a signal ACTIVATES.

Reception

6

These are PROTEINS that become ACTIVATED when they receive a SPECIFIC signal.

Receptors

7

What are TWO (2) LOCATIONS of RECEPTORS?

Plasma Membrane (WATER SOLUBLE)
Intracellular (NOT water soluble)

8

These are SMALL MOLECULES and IONS inside of the cell that AMPLIFY signal from RECEPTOR and TRANSFER signal to EFFECTORS.

Secondary Messengers

9

What are the the FOUR (4) STAGES of the SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM?

1.) HORMONE BINDS to receptor
2.) RECEPTOR ACTIVATES G protein
3.) ATP CONVERTED into cAMP
4.) cAMP ACTIVATES kinases

10

This is the ACTIVATION of EFFECTORS which will REGULATE one or more CELLULAR ACTIVITIES.

Response

11

What are TWO (2) types of CELLULAR RESPONSES?

Transcriptional Regulation
Post Translational Modification

12

This is the interaction between internal and external stimuli.

Etiolation Response

13

This is the receptor to the signal of light.

Phytochrome

14

This is the plant growth response in light.

De-etiolation

15

This is a CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE which REGULATE the METABOLIC FUNCTION of target cells.

Hormone

16

That THREE (3) things to plant hormones generally affect?

Cellular Division
Cellular Elongation
Cellular Differentiation

17

This is the MASTER plant HORMONE that influence plants throughout their LIFETIME.

Auxin

18

What are the major functions of auxin (3)?

Stem Elongation
Lateral and Adventitious Root Growth
Phototropism and Gravitropism

19

Where are auxins PRODUCED (3)?

Apical meristems of ROOTS and SHOOTS
Young leaves
Developing seeds and fruits

20

Where are auxins transported (2)?

Parenchyma cells
Apoplastic transport

21

These work in concert with auxins to CONTROL CELL DIVISION, DIFFERENTIATION and APICAL DOMINANCE.

Cytokinins

22

These are involved in the SLOWING GROWTH of plants.

Abscisic Acids

23

This triggers FRUIT RIPENING.

Ethylene

24

This is the PROGRAMMED DEATH of certain cells/organs of a plant.

Senescence