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Principles of Biology II > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (79):
1

How many cells does the human body contain?

50-100 Trillion cells

2

This SYSTEM can REGULATE the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.

Nervous System

3

What is the endocrine system composed of?

Endocrine Glands
Hormones

4

These are COMMUNICATION and REGULATORY MOLECULES secreted by endocrine glands.

Hormones

5

How are hormones transported throughout the body?

Blood Stream
OR
Hemolymph

6

What are the FIVE (5) major PROCESSES controlled by hormones?

1.) Reproduction
2.) Development
3.) Energy Metabolism
4.) Growth
5.) Behavior

7

What is the FUNCTION OF HORMONES?

To SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS

8

Why don't hormones effect all cells of the body?

Because HORMONES BIND to SPECIFIC RECEPTOR proteins on TARGET CELLS.

9

What are the THREE (3) TYPES of HORMONES.

1.) Polypeptides
2.) Amines
3.) Steroids

10

The ENDOCRINE SYSTEM is responsible for ____________ and ____________.

Communication
Regulation

11

What are NON-STEROID HORMONES derived from?

Amino Acids

12

Give FOUR (4) examples of NON-STEROID HORMONES.

Epinephrine
Insulin
Erythropoietin
ADH

13

What are STEROID HORMONES derived from?

Cholesterol

14

Give TWO (2) examples of STEROID HORMONES.

Testosterone
Estrogen

15

Are NON-STEROID hormones HYDROPHILIC OR HYDROPHOBIC?

Hydrophilic

16

These are HORMONES derived from AMINO ACIDS.

Non-steroid

17

These are HORMONES derived from CHOLESTEROL.

Steroid

18

Are STEROID hormones HYDROPHILIC OR HYDROPHOBIC?

Hydrophobic

19

What are the TWO (2) MAIN LOCATIONS a for HORMONE RECEPTORS?

Plasma Membrane
Intracellular

20

NON-STEROID hormones ________(can OR cannot) enter target cells, while STEROID hormones ________ (can OR cannot).

Non-steroids CANNOT

Steroids CAN

21

How do NON-STEROID hormones TRIGGER RESPONSES in SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEMS? Directly OR indirectly?

INDIRECTLY, bc they cannot enter target cells.

22

How do STEROID hormones TRIGGER RESPONSES in SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEMS? Directly OR indirectly?

DIRECTLY, bc they can enter target cells.

23

This process is characterized by one hormone TRIGGERING the synthesis of LARGE NUMBER of ENZYMES.

Enzyme Amplification

24

How many MOLECULES does ONE (1) EPINEPHRINE molecule essentially activate according to ENZYME AMPLIFICATION?

1 epinephrine molecule activates 1BILLION MOLECULES

25

Why is it possible for the SAME HORMONE to cause DIFFERENT EFFECTS if they bind to SPECIFIC RECEPTORS?

1.) Same receptor but different intracellular proteins

2.) Different receptor but same hormone

(See p. 3 in NOTES)

26

True or False: most target cells are sensitive to multiple hormones.

TRUE

27

What are the TWO (2) main types of INTERACTIVE EFFECTS of hormones?

Synergistic
Antagonistic

28

This type of INTERACTIVE EFFECT occurs when TWO HORMONES act to produce GREATER EFFECT.

Synergistic

29

This type of INTERACTIVE EFFECT occurs when ONE HORMONE OPPOSES the ACTION of another.

Antagonistic

30

This is the MAJOR FUEL for animals.

Glucose

31

What are the TWO (2) ANTAGONISTIC hormones?

Insulin
Glucagon

32

What FUNCTION does INSULIN serve?

LOWERS a blood glucose

33

What GLAND secretes INSULIN?

Pancreas

34

What is the FUNCTION of GLUCAGON?

It INCREASES blood glucose

35

Which GLAND secretes GLUCAGON?

Pancreas

36

This is the result of a DISRUPTION in GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS.

Diabetes Mellitus

37

Type 1 DIABETES is the result of what?

A DEFICIENCY in insulin PRODUCTION.

38

Type 2 DIABETES is a result of what?

DEFICIENCY in insulin RECEPTORS on target cells.

39

90% of cases of DIABETES are type __.

2

40

This is the MAJOR ENDOCRINE GLAND.

Pituitary

41

This organ CONTROLS the PITUITARY GLAND.

Hypothalamus

42

Name the TWO (2) LOBES of the PITUITARY GLAND.

Anterior
Posterior

43

The ANTERIOR pituitary gland SECRETES ___ hormones.

6

44

The POSTERIOR pituitary gland SECRETES ___ hormones.

2

45

Name the SIX (6) HORMONES secretes by the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.

1.) Growth Hormone (GH)
2.) Prolactin
3.) Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
4.) Luteinizing Hormone
5.) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
6.) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

46

What are the TWO (2) HORMONES secreted by the POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND?

1.) Oxytocin
2.) Antidiuretic Hormone

47

What role does PROLACTIN of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Milk synthesis and secretion

48

What role does GROWTH HORMONE of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Growth
Metabolic functions

49

What role does FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Ova and Sperm production

50

What role does LUTEINIZING HORMONE of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Stimulates Ovulation and Estrogen (ovaries)
Stimulates Androgens (testes)

51

What role does THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Stimulates Thyroid Gland

52

What role does ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE of the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Stimulates Adrenal Glands

53

What role does OXYTOCIN of the POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Stimulates Mammary Gland Cells
Stimulates Uterus Contraction

54

What role does ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE of the POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND play in the endocrine system?

Promotes H2O Retention by kidneys

55

The THYROID GLAND consists of ___ large LOBES.

2

56

The THYROID GLAND is POSITIONED just below the __________.

Larynx

57

What TWO (2) HORMONES does the THYROID GLAND PRODUCE?

Thyroid Hormone
Calcitonin

58

What TWO (2) CHEMICALS make up THYROID HORMONE?

Thyroxine
Triiodothyronine

59

What THREE (3) METABOLIC PROCESSES does THYROID HORMONE influence?

1.) INCREASES ENERGY RELEASE from carbs
2.) INCREASES rate of PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
3.) ACCELERATES GROWTH

60

This endocrine gland STIMULATES the THYROID GLAND.

Anterior pituitary gland

61

These TWO (2) COMPLICATIONS arise due to THYROID HORMONE IMBALANCES

Grave's Disease
Goiter

62

What is the FUNCTION of CALCITONIN?

Lowers blood calcium levels

63

How does CALCITONIN lower blood calcium levels?

It INCREASES EXCRETION of calcium in urine.

64

This is the ANTAGONISTIC hormone to CALCITONIN, in that it INCREASES BLOOD CALCIUM.

Parathyroid Hormone

65

In what THREE (3) WAYS does PARATHYROID HORMONE INCREASE blood CALCIUM?

1.) Calcium UPTAKE in KIDNEYS
2.) Calcium UPTAKE in INTESTINES
3.) Calcium RELEASE from BONES

66

What GLAND secretes PARATHYROID HORMONE?

Parathyroid Glands

67

These GLANDS are located ABOVE the KIDNEYS and divided into 2 LAYERS.

Adrenal Glands

68

What are the TWO (2) LAYERS a of the ADRENAL GLANDS?

Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Cortex

69

The ADRENAL MEDULLA secretes this HORMONE.

Epinephrine

70

The ADRENAL CORTEX secretes ___ different STEROIDS. Name TWO (2).

30
Glucocorticoids
Mineralcorticosteroids

71

What is the FUNCTION of EPINEPHRINE?

FIGHT OR FLIGHT:

1.) Increased Heart Rate
2.) Increased Breathing Rate
3.) Increased Metabolic Rate
4.) Decreased Digestion

72

What is the FUNCTION of GLUCOCORTICOIDS?

RAISE blood GLUCOSE levels (NON-CARB sources)

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY Effects

73

What is the FUNCTION of MINERALCORTICOSTEROIDS?

Maintain SALT and WATER BALANCE

Promotes SODIUM REABSORPTION in kidneys

74

Besides MINERALCORTICOSTEROIDS, what is another HORMONE involved in WATER REABSORPTION?

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

75

What are the TWO (2) ANTAGONISTIC hormones of the PANCREAS?

Insulin
Glucagon

76

This ANTAGONISTIC hormone LOWERS blood GLUCOSE.

Insulin

77

This ANTAGONISTIC hormone INCREASES blood GLUCOSE.

Glucagon

78

GONADS produce what TWO (2) STEROID HORMONES?

Androgens
Estrogens

79

GONADAL SEX HORMONES are STIMULATED by what other 2 hormones?

Follicle-stimulating
Luteinizing