Flashcards in antibacterial agents overview ppt Deck (39)
Antibiotics eliminated by non renal functions (D-CRIMES)
Rifampin- inducer of P450 hepatotoxicity
isoniazid- genetic polymorphism hepatotoxicity
Metronidazole- drug to drug interaction with alcohol due to inhibition of aldehyde metabolism
Erythromycin- inhibition of P450
Sulfonamides- risk of renal crystalluria
Mechanisms of antibacterial drugs
1. Cell wall synthesis
3. DNA gyrase
4. Folic acid metabolism
5. Protein synthesis inhibitors 50s and 30s
6. Protein synthesis
7. Cell membrane
8. DNA-directed RNA polymerase
Cell membrane attacking antibacterial drugs
Folic acid metabolism mechanism drugs
cell wall synthesis mechanism drugs
penicillins V and G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, pipercillin tazo
cephalosporins (cephalexin, cefazolin 1st gen), Cefuroxime 2nd gen, ceftriaxone 3rd)
DNA mechanism drugs
Fluoroquinolones (cipro, levo, moxiflo)
DNA gyrase mechanism
DNA-directed RNA polymerase mechanism drugs
protein synthesis 50s inhibitors
Macrolides (eryhtromycin), azithromycin
protein synthesis 30s inhibitors
tetracycline (doxy and tetracycline)
Mechanisms of resistance
1. decreased entry
2. efflux pump
3. bypass pathway
4. enzymatic degradation
5. altered target site
MRSA, S. pneumoniae and enterococci use Antibiotic target site alteration resistance mechanisms to which antibiotics?
B-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems)
S. aureus, Pseudomonas species use Antibiotic target site alteration resistance mechanisms to which antibiotics?
Enterococci, staphylococci use Antibiotic target site alteration resistance mechanisms to which antibiotics?
Streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci use Antibiotic target site alteration resistance mechanisms to which antibiotics?
S. aureus, P aeruginosa, bacteroides and enterococci use antibiotic modification or inactivation resistant mechanisms against which antibiotics?
B-lactams ( penicillins and cephalosporins)
Enterococci alone uses acetyl-phospho-adenylyl transferases modification or inactivation against which antibiotic?
Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses decreased entry (natural resistance to which antibiotic?
Pseudomonas species in general use decreased entry (natural resistance to which antibiotic?
E.coli, pseudomonas decreased entry (natural resistance to which antibiotic?
Streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci use increased efflux resistance to which antibiotics?
Tetracyclines, Macrolides (was a question on his powerpoint)
Pseudomonas species use use increased efflux resistance to which antibiotics?
Mechanisms of bactericidal drugs
1. inhibition of cell wall synthesis
2. Disruption of cell membrane function
3. interference with DNA function or synthesis
mechanisms of bacteriostatic drugs
1. inhibition of protein synthesis
2. Inhibition of intermediary metabolic pathways
What are the gram positive cocci
Streptococci (pneumonia, pyogenes)
Staphylococci (aureus: MSSA-MRSA)
What are the gram negative cocci
Neisseria (meningitidis, gonorrhoeae), M. Catarrhalis
Rods: gram (-) and (+)
Gram (-): E. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, H. Influ)
Gram (+): Listeria
Anaerobes gram (-) and (+)
Gram (+): Clostridium difficile, H. Pylori
Gram (-): Bacteroides fragilis