Flashcards in Overview Of Antibacterial Therapy (word Doc) Deck (40)
Staph, Strep, and Enterococci are what category of bacteria?
Gram Positive Cocci
N gonorrheae, N meningitidis, and M catarrhalis are what category of bacteria?
Gram negative cocci
Bacillus anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes are what category of bacteria?
Gram positive rods
H influenzae, E coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are what category of bacteria?
Gram negative rods
Clostridium difficile, tetani, and botulinum are what category of bacteria?
Anaerobes: Gram Positive rod
Bacteroides fragilis is what category of bacteria?
Anaerobe: Gram negative rod
Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia are what category of bacteria?
Name the 8 bacteria most commonly seen in meningitis. (Hint: BEHLN-SSS)
Name the 4 bacteria most commonly associated with skin and soft tissue infections. (Hint: CPSS)
Name the 3 most common bacteria assoc. w/ Endocarditis. (Hint: SSS)
Name the 2 most common bacteria assoc. w/ URI’s. (Hint: SS)
Name the 3 most common bacteria assoc. w/ Lower respiratory tract infections. (Hint: CMS)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (walking pneumonia)
Name the two most common bacteria assoc. w/ hospital acquired lung infections. (Hint: BP)
Name the 3 most common bacteria assoc. w/ PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) (Hint: BCN)
Name the 2 most common bacteria assoc. w/ UTI’s. (Hint: EP)
Name the 3 most common bacteria assoc. w/ intra-abdominal infections. (Hint: CEB)
Name one bacteria assoc. w/ liver and pancreas infections.
Name the most common bacteria related to mouth infections.
Name the 4 most common bugs assoc. w/ bone and joint infections. (Hint: NPSS)
Name the 2 most common bugs assoc. w/ genital infections. (Hint: CN)
Name the 4 types of abx that have MOA’s for cell wall synthesis. (Hint: VPMC)
-Vancomycin (glycopeptide, gram pos, MRSA)
-Penicillins (Gram pos bugs)
-Monobactams (Aztreonam, Gram Neg, Pseudomonas)
-Cephalosporins (1st gen gram pos Cephalexin/Cefazolin, 2nd gen more gram neg Cefuroxime, 3rd gen less gram pos more gram neg Ceftriaxone/Cefotaxime/Cefpodoxime, 4th gen Cefepime covers Pseudomonas, 5th gen Ceftaroline covers MRSA)
Name the 4 types of abx whose MOA works on nucleic acids (ie: DNA gyrase, RNA polymerase, and DNA) (HINT: FRMN)
1)Fluoroquinolones: Gram neg/pos, good respiratory penetration
-Ciprofloxacin (covers Pseudomonas, only one non-respiratory, used for UTI and lower abd infx)
-Levofloxacin (covers pseudo)
-Moxifloxacin (only one that doesn’t cover pseudomonas)
2) Riffffffampin for H infffffffluenzae
3) Metronidazole (anaerobic below diaphragm)
4) Nitrofurantoin (used for UTI’s and ear infections)
Name the 4 types of abx whose MOA works on inhibition of protein synthesis. (TAMC)
1) tetracyclines: Gram pos, MRSA coverage
2) Aminoglycosides: Gram Neg with anti-Pseudomonal activity; toxicities assoc. w/ them such as ototoxic and nephrotoxic
3)Macrolides (azithro, erythro, clarithromycin)
-atypical pneumonia coverage, H influenzae
-azithro (strep pneumo is resistant)
-Gram pos and good anaerobic coverage
Name one abx whose MOA is protein synthesis (tRNA).
-Oxazolidinones: Gram Pos, MRSA, VRE
Name two abx whose MOA’s work on cell membranes.
1)Lipopeptide: Gram Pos MRSA and VRE; NO LUNG PENETRATION
2) Polymyxins: used in abx skin ointments like bacitracin
Name the one abx whose MOA works on Folic Acid Metabolism.
-Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim): Gram Neg and MRSA
Selective toxicity: bacteria must synthesize folate intracellularly while mammalian cells can take up folate from the environment. Which abx class acts on folate metabolism?
Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
Selective toxicity: certain abx can work on protein synthesis, specifically ribosomes, because humans have 40s/60s ribosomes whereas bacteria have 30s/50s ribosomes. What 4 abx work on protein synthesis inhibition?
-Macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, etc)
Selective toxicity: bacterial nucleic acid synthesis is different from humans. Bacteria use DNA gyrase for their circular DNA, while humans use topoisomerase. Name the 4 abx classes that work on nucleic acid synthesis. (Hint: FRNN)
-Fluoroquinolones (cipro, levo)