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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (107):
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Bacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Penicillin
Cephalosporins
VACCIB (Vanc, aztreonam, cycloserine, clavulanic acid, imipinem, bacitracin)

1

Renal tubular reabsorption of penicillin inhibited by _

Probenecid

2

Renal tubular reabsorption inhibited by probenecid

Pen G
Pen V

3

Inactivated by penicillamase

Pen G/V
Ampicillin/amoxicillin
Piperacillin

4

Penicillin for staph infections

Methicillin
Nafcillin
Oxacillin
Cloxacillin

5

Penicillin that can cause interstitial nephritis

Methicillin

6

Penicillin that can cause neutropenia

Nafcillin

7

SE of methicillin

Interstitial nephritis

8

Narrow spectrum penicillin

Pen G (inject)
Pen V (oral)

9

Coverage of amox/ampi

HiB
E. coli
Listeria
Proteus
Salmonella
Enterococci

10

Penicillin that can cause pseudomembranous colitis

Ampicillin

11

SE of ampicillin

Pseudomembranous colitis
Rash

12

Antipseudomonal penicillins

Ticarcillin
Piperacillin
Carbenicillin

13

Drug interaction of antipseudomonal penicillin with aminoglycosides

Synergism

14

Antipseudomonal penicillin that can cause bleeding

Ticarcillin (antiplatelet)

15

Cephalosporin with greatest bone and tissue penetration

1st gen (cefazolin)

16

Coverage of 1st gen cephalosporins

Gram positive
Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella

17

Coverage of second gen cephalosporin

Gram positive
HiB, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Serratia

18

Cephalosporins with disulfiram reaction

Cefamandole
Cefotetan
Cefoperazone

19

Carbapenem

Imipinem
Meropenem
Ertapenem

20

Inhibits renal metabolism of imipinem

Cilastatin

21

Monobactam

Aztreonam

22

Coverage of aztreonam

Gram neg especially:
Klebsiella, Serratia, Pseudomonas

23

Uses of vancomycin

Pseudomembranous colitis (oral)
MRSA

24

SE of nafcillin

Neutropenia

25

Treatment of red man syndrome

Slow infusion of vancomycin

26

Drugs of last resort

Imipinem
Amikacin
Meropenem
Linezolid
Streptogranin
Vancomycin

27

Beta lactamase inhibitors

Clavulanic acid
Sulbactam
Tazobactam

28

Glycopeptide that inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to the D-ala-D-ala terminal of nascent peptidoglycan

Vancomycin

29

Peptide antibiotic that interferes with late stage in cell wall synthesis in gram positive organisms

Bacitracin

30

Reserved for topical use only due to nephrotoxicity

Bactracin

31

SE of bacitracin

Nephrotixicity

32

Ketolide

Telithromycin

33

Second line drug for drug-resistant TB (cell wall synthesis inhibitor)

Cycloserine

34

Antipseudomonal cephalosporins

Ceftazidime
Cefoperazone
Cefepime

35

Bactericidal protein sythesis inhibitors

Aminoglycosides
Streptogramins

36

Bacteriostatic protein sythesis inhibitors

Tetracycline
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin (macrolides)
Lincosamides (clindamycin)
Linezolid

37

SE of vanco

Red man syndrome
Nephrotoxic, ototoxic

38

Inhibits translocation

Lincosamides (clinda)
Macrolides (erythro)

39

Inhibits initiation complex in protein synthesis

Streptomycin

40

Inhibits binding of tRNA to A site

Tetracycline

41

Inhibits transpeptidation

Chloramphenicol

42

Back up for salmonella, rickettsia, bacteroides

Chloramphenicol

43

Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Rifampin

44

Decreased RBC, cyanosis and CVS collapse

Gray baby syndrome

45

SE of chloramphenicol

Grey baby syndrome
Aplasic anemia (ideosyncratic)

46

Protein synthesis inhibitor that can benused for SIADH

Demeclocycline

47

Enzyme problem in gray baby syndrome

Glucoronosyltransferase

48

Broadest spectrum tetracycline

Tigecycline

49

Teratogenic effect of tetracycline

Tooth enamel dysplasia/discoloration

50

Do not take tetracycline with _ because _

Milk decreases absorption

51

Aminoglycoside with reverse neuromuscular blockade with calcium gluconate and neostigmine

Neomycin
Kanamycin
Paromomycin

52

Macrolide with highest Vd and slowest elimination

Azithromycin

53

Used for macrolide-resistance

Telithromycin

54

All macrolides inhibit CYP450 except _

Azithromycin

55

Protein synthesis inhibtor that is a backup drug against gram positive cocci

Clindamycin

56

Cross ressistance between clinda and _ is common

Macrolides

57

Treatment for anaerobic infections above and below diaphragm

Above: clindamycin
Below: metronidazole

58

Streptogramin

Quinupristin
Dalfopristin

59

Protein synthesis inhibitor for drug-resistant gram positive cocci

Quinupristin
Dalfopristin
Linezolid (listeria, corynebacteria)

60

Protein synthesis inhibitor that can cause serotonin syndrome

Linezolid

61

Killing action continues when their plasma levels have declined below measureable levels. Seen in?

Postantibiotic effect
Aminoglyosides and fluoroquinolonea

62

Aminoglycoside with narrowest therapeutic window

Amikacin

63

Mode of excretion of aminoglycosides

Glomerular filtration

64

Require oxygen

Aminoglycosides

65

Protein synthesis inhibitor that causes pseudomembranous colitis

Clindamycin

66

Side effects of animoglycosides

Nephrotoxicity (reversible)
Ototoxicity (irreversible)
Teratogenic

67

Aminoglycosides are synergistic with _

Beta lactams

68

Most nephrotoxic aminoglycosides

Gentamicin
Tobramycin

69

Aminoglycoside that is a second line drug for MDRTB

Amikacin

70

Coverage of streptomycin

TB
Tularemia
Bubonic plague
Brucellosis

71

Aminoglycoside administered IM

Streptomycin

72

Teratogenic effect of aminoglycosides

Deafness

73

Aminoglycoside for visceral leishmaniasis

Paromomycin

74

Most common drug trigger for SJS/TEN, EM, PAN, exfoliative dermatitis

Sulfonamides

75

Most common drug trigger for SJS/TEN, EM, PAN, exfoliative dermatitis

Sulfonamides

76

Most ototoxic aminoglycoside

Kanamycin
Amikacin

77

Aminoglycosides limited to topical and oral use

Neomycin
Kanamycin
Paromomycin

78

Aminoglycoside for hepatic encephalopathy

Neomycin

79

Most vestibulotoxic aminoglycosides

Tobramycin
Gentamicin

80

Aminoglycoside for drug-resistant gonorrhea

Spectinomycin

81

Cummulative ototoxicity of aminoglycosides when used with _

Loop diuretics

82

Nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides

ATN

83

Short acting antifolate drug

Sulfisoxazole

84

Intermediate-acting anti-folate drug

Sulfamethoxazole

85

Long acting antifolate drug

Sulfadoxine

86

Enzyme blocked by sulfonamides

Dihydropteroate synthase (competitive inhibition)

87

Enzyme blocked by trimethoprim

Dihydrofolate reductase

88

Sulfonamide with poor eschar penetration

Silver sulfadiazine

89

Sulfonamide with good eschar penetration

Mafenide acetate

90

Antibiotic for burn infection

Silver sulfadiazine
Mafenide acetate

91

Backup med for cholera

Cotrimoxazole

92

Crossover biochem:
Topoisomerase I and II

1: swivelase
2: gyrase

93

Enzyme inhibited by fluoroquinolones

Topoisomerase 2 (DNA gyrase) and 4

94

Second gen fluoroquinolones

Ciprofloxacin
Ofloxacin
Norfloxacin

95

SE of FQ

Tendinitis
Tendon rupture

96

Third gen FQ

Levofloxacin

97

FQ enhance toxicity of _

Methylxanthines (theophylline)

98

FQ withdrawn due to severe cardiotoxicity (arrhythmia)

Grepafloxacin (3rd gen)

99

4th gen FQ

Moxifloxacin

100

FQ with SE: diabetes

Gatifloxacin (4th gen)

101

FQ with SE: hepatotoxicity

Trovafloxacin

102

Antibiotics for pseudonembranous colitis

Metronidazole
Vancomycin

103

Antibiotic with SE: metallic taste

Metronidazole

104

Nitrofurantoin use

UTI except proteus and pseudomonas

105

Spectrum of sulfonamide hypersensitivity

EM
SJS/TEN
PAN
Exfoliative dermatitis

106

First generation FQ

Nalixidic acid