AP Gov Ch.12 Viridian Leal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Gov Ch.12 Viridian Leal Deck (53):
1

Thomas Jefferson

Principle drafter of the Declaration of Independence; second vice president; third president of the US from 1801 to 1809. Co-founder of the Democratic Republican Part

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Donald J Trump

The 45th president of the US, a Republican elected in 2016; first president elected without prior political or military experience.

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Hillary Clinton

First female major party candidate for president of the US, a Democrat, who ran against Donald J Trump in 2016. Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013; NY Senator from 2001 to 2009.

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electorate

the citizens eligible to vote

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mandate

a command, indicated by an electorate's votes, for the elected officials to carry out a party platform or policy agenda

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primary election

Elections in which voters decide which of the candidates withing a party will represent the party in the general election

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closed primary

a primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to cast ballot

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open primary

a primary election in which party members, independents, and sometimes members of the other party are allowed to participate

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crossover voting

participation in the primary election of a party with which the voter is not affiliated

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runoff primary

a second primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary

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general election

election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices

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initiative

an election that allows citizens to propose legislation or state constitutional amendments by submitting them to the electorate for popular vote

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referendum

an election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments to the voters for approval

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recall

an election in which voters can remove an incumbent from office prior to the near scheduled election

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electoral college

Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that elect that president

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elector

member of the Electoral College

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reappointment

the reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census

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presidential coattails

when successful presidential candidates carry into office congressional candidates of the same party in the year of their election

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Barack Obama

The first African American president, a Democrat. 40th president from 2009-2017; Senator from Illinois from 2005-2008; member of Senate from 1997-2004

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mid-term election

an election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term

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campaign manager

the individual who travels with the candidate and coordinate the campaign

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finance chair

the individual who coordinates the financial business of the campaign

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communication director

the person who develops the overall media strategy for the candidate

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press secretary

the individual in charge with interacting and communication with journalists on a daily basis

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campaign consultant

a private-sector professional who sells to a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get that candidate elected

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pollster

a campaign consultant who conducts public opinion surveys

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voter canvass

the process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone

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get-out-the-vote (GOTV)

a push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls

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Bernie Sanders

Longest serving independent in the US Congress. Ran against Hillary Clinton in 2016 Democratic presidential primary; senator from Vermont since 2007; first elected to the House of Reps in 1991.

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positive ad

advertising oh behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidate's qualifications, family, and issue positions, with no direct reference to the opponent

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negative ad

advertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponents character or platform

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contrast ad

ad that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the candidate sponsoring the ad

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inoculation ad

advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched

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Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)

Passed in 1971, this is the primary law that regulates political campaign spending and fundraising.Originally focused on increased disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns

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Federal Election Commission (FEC)

an independent regulatory agency founded in 1975 by the US Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the US

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Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)

Passed in 2002, this act amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 with several provisions designed to end the use of nonfederal, or "soft money" (money raised outside the limits and prohibitions of federal campaign finance law) for activity affecting federal elections

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Citizens United v. FEC

The 2010 US Supreme Court case that enabled corporations and unions have the same political speech rights as individuals under the First Amendment. As part of this ruling, the Supreme Court found that the government may not prohibit corporations or unions from using their general treasury funds to support or denounce political candidates in elections

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McCutcheon v. FEC

The 2014 Supreme Court ruling that declared Section 441 of the Federal Election Campaign Act unconstitutional. Section 441 imposed limits on any individual's total political contributions in a two-year period.

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political action committee (PAC)

Officially recognized fund-raising organizations that represent interest groups and are allowed by federal law to make contributions to candidates' campaigns

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527 political committee

Organizations created with the primary purpose of influencing electoral outcomes; the term is typically applied only to freestanding interest groups that do not explicitly advocate for the election of a candidate

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501(c) group

interest groups whose primary purpose is not electoral politics

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super PAC

political action committees established to make independent expenditures

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independent expenditures

spending for campaign activity that is not coordinated with a candidate's campaign

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public funds

donations from general tax revenues to the campaigns of qualifying presidential candidates

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matching funds

donations to presidential campaigns whereby every dollar raised from individuals in amounts less than $251 is matched by the federal treasury

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conventional political participation

activism that attempts to influence the political process through commonly accepted forms of persuasion such as voting or letter writing

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unconventional political participation

activism that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing.

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turnout

the proportion of the voting-age public that casts a ballot

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retrospective judgement

a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on past performance on a particular issue

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prospective judgment

a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected

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Help America Vote Act (HAVA)

A federal law passed in 2002 that addresses issues of voting systems and voter access that were identified following the 2000 election. It established minimum election administration standards for states and units of local government with responsibility for the administration of federal elections and for other purposes related to the bill

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incumbancy

already holding an office

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front loading

the tendency of states to choose an early date on the nomination calendar