Flashcards in AP Gov. Ch.5 Viridian Leal Deck (57):
Born a slave in Maryland in the early 1820s, Tubman escaped to freedom and became a conductor on the Underground Railroad. She led more than 70 people to freedom in the North, served the Union during the Civil War, and championed woman's suffrage.
a supporter, especially in the early 19th century, of ending the institution of slavery.
the government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals
equal protection clause
section of the 14th Amendment that guarantees all citizens receive "equal protection of the laws"
A former slave born in the early 1800s who became a leading abolitionist, writer, and suffragist.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Leading nineteenth-century feminist, suffragist, and abolitionist who, along with Lucretia Mott, organized the Seneca Falls Convention. Stanton later founded the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) with Susan B. Anthony.
Leading 19th-century feminist, siffragist, and abolitionist who, along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, organized the Seneca Falls Convention
Seneca Falls Convention
The first major feminist meeting, held in New York in 1848, which produced the historic "Declaration of Sentiments" calling for equal rights for women.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
A Supreme Court decision that ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and denied citizenship rights to enslaved African Americans. Dred Scott
heightened tensions between the pro-slavery South and the abolitionist North in the run up to the Civil War.
President Abraham Lincoln issued this proclamation on January 1, 1863, in the third year of the Civil War. It freed all slaves in states that were in active rebellion
One of the three major amendments ratified after the Civil War; specifically bans slavery
One of three major amendments ratified after the Civil War; guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all US citizens.
One of the three major amendments ratified after the Civil War; specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
Susan B. Anthony
19th century feminist suffragist, and founder of the National Woman Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Staton. Anthony later formed (NAWSA), which along with the National Woman's Party helped to ensure ratification of the 19th Amendment.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
passed by Congress to enforce the 14th Amendment's guarantees of equal protection to African Americans. Granted equal access to public accommodations among other provisions.
Jim Crow Laws
laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, theaters, hotels, and other public accommodations.
taxes levied in many southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot.
voter qualification provisions in many southern states that allowed only those citizens whose grandfather had voted before reconstruction to unless they passed a wealth or literacy test.
Progressive Era (1890-1920)
a period of widespread activism to reform political, economic, and social ills in the US.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites; the Court found that separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment.
the central tenet of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision that claimed that separate accommodations for blacks and whites did not violate the Constitution. This doctrine was used by southern states to pass widespread discriminatory legislation at the end of the 19th century.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
an important rights organization founded in 1909 to oppose segregation, racism, and voting rights violations targeted against African Americans.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
organization created by joining the National and American Women Suffrage Associations
the drive for voting rights for women that took place in the US in the 19th century and early 20th century until the ratification of the 19th Amendment.
National Woman's Party (NWP)
a militant suffrage organization founded in the early 20th century. Members of the NWP were arrested, jailed, and even force-fed by authorities when they went on hunger strikes to secure voting rights for women.
Amendment to the Constitution passed in 1920 that guaranteed women the right to vote
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF)
the legal arm of the NAACP that successfully litigated the landmark case of Brown v Board and a host of other key civil rights cases
a leading civil rights lawyer and the first head of the NAACP's Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Marshall was the first African American appointed to the Supreme Court and served on the Court from 1967-1991
Harry S Truman
the third-party president, a democrat, who served from 1945-1953. Truman became president when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in office;he led the US through the end of the World War 2nd the start of the Cold War
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
US Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the 14th Amendment's guarantee of equal protection clause.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
The 34th president, a Republican who served from 1953-1961. Eisenhower commanded Allied Forces during WW2.
a leading civil rights activist of the 20th century. Parks was most notably involved with the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr.
A Baptist minister, proponent of the nonviolence, and the most prominent leader of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. He was assassinated 1968.
John F. Kennedy
The 35th president, a Democrat who served from 1961-1963 and marked a generational shift in US politics at the height of the Cold War. He was assassinated 1963
Civil Rights Act of 1964
wide-ranging legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
National Organization for Women (NOW)
the leading activist group of the women's rights movement, especially in the 1960s and 1970s
First Lady of the US from 1933-1945. Roosevelt championed human rights throughout her life and served as the US's first delegate to the United Nations General Assembly and later chaired the UN's commission on Human Rights.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
legislation that required employers to pay men and women equally for equal work
Provision of the Education Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
proposed amendments to the Constitution that states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be abridged by the US or any state on account of sex"
League of United Latin-American Citizens (LULAC)
an activist group founded in 1929 to combat discrimination against, and promote assimilation Americans of Hispanic origin
Labor organizer who, with Dolores Huerta, founded the US Farm Workers Union (UFW) in the 1960s.
Labor organizer who, with Cesar Chavez, founded the US Farmers Work Union (UFW) in the 1960s.
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF)
an organization modeled on the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund that works to protect the civil rights pf Americans of Mexican and other Hispanic heritage.
Chinese Exclusion Act
a law passed by Congress in 1882 that prohibited all new immigration into the US from China
Korematsu v. US (1944)
Supreme Court ruling that upheld the authority of the US government to require mass interment of people of Japanese ancestry in the US during WW2
a minority group based on sexual orientation and gender identity that includes lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
2003 Supreme Court ruling that anti-sodomy laws violated the constitutional right to privacy
US v. Windsor (2013)
Supreme Court ruling striking down the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act which prohibited federal recognition of same-sex marriage
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
Supreme Court ruling that held that same-sex couples have a fundamental right to marry under the Constitution.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
a law enacted by Congress in 1990 designed to guarantee accommodation and access for people with a wide range of disabilities.
Standards of Review
the levels of deference the Court gives governments to craft policies that make distinctions on the basis of personal characteristics. These standards stem from the Court's need to ensure that laws do not undermine the 14th amendment's equal protection clause
category or class, such as race or a fundamental freedom, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court
a heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice.Legislation affecting the fundamental freedoms of speech, assembly, religion, and the press as well as suspect classifications are automatically accorded this level of review.
policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvantaged group.
intermediate standard of review
a standard of review in which the Court determines whether classifications serve an important governmental objective and are substantially related to serving that objective. gender related legislation automatically accorded this level of review