AP Gov Ch.2 Viridian Leal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Gov Ch.2 Viridian Leal Deck (51):
1

New World

The Western Hemisphere of Earth, also called The Americas, which was unknown to Europeans before 1492

2

Benjamin Franklin

A brilliant inventor and senior statesman and the Constitutional Convention who urged colonial unity as early as 1754, twenty-two years before before the Declaration of Independence

3

French and Indian War

The American phase of what was called the Seven years War fought between Britain, France, and the Indian allies from 1754 to 1763

4

mercantilism

An economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance trade

5

Samuel Adams

Cousin of President John Adams and an early leader against the British and loyalist oppressors; he played a key role in developing the Committees of Correspondence and was active in Massachusetts and colonial politics

6

Stamp Act Congress

A gathering of nine colonial representatives in 1765 in New York City where a detailed list of Crown violations was drafted; first official meeting of the colonies and the first official meeting of the colonies and the first official step toward creating a unified nation

7

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Loosely organized group of patriotic American colonists who were early revolutionaries

8

Crispus Attucks

An African American and first American to die in what became known as the Boston Massacre in 1770

9

First Continental Congress

Meeting held in Philadelphia from Sept. 5 to Oct. 26, 1774 where 56 delegates except from Georgia adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts

10

Lexington and Concord

The first sites of armed conflict between revolutionaries and British soldiers, remembered for the "shot heard around the world" in 1775

11

Second Continental Congress

Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 where it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in chief

12

Thomas Paine

Author of Common Sense, a pamphlet that advocated for independence from great Britain

13

Common Sense

Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that challenged the authority of the British government to govern the colonies

14

Thomas Jefferson

Principle drafter of the Declaration of Independence; second vice president of the U.S; third president of the U.S from 1801 to 1809. Co-founder of the Democratic Republican Party created to oppose federalists

15

Declaration of Independence

Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain

16

social contract theory

the belief that governments exist based on the consent of the government

17

political culture

Commonly shared attitudes, behaviors, and core values about how the government should operate

18

Articles of Confederation

The compact between the 13 original colonies that created a loose league of friendship, with the national government drawing powers from the states

19

Critical Period

the chaotic period from 1781 to 1789 after the American Revolution during which the formal colonies were governed under the Articles of Confederation

20

Shay's Rebellion

A rebellion in which an army of 1,500 disgruntled and angry farmers led by Daniel Shays marched to Springfield, Massachusetts, and forcibly restrained the state court from foreclosing mortgages on their farms

21

Constitutional Convention

The meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that was first intended to revise the Articles of Confederation but produced the Constitution

22

George Washington

Widely considered "Father of the Nation" he was the commander of the revolutionary armies; served as the presiding officer of the Constitutional Convention and the first president from 1789 to 1797

23

Constitution

A document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of the government

24

Virginia Plan

A proposed framework for the Constitution favoring large states. It called for a bicameral legislature, which would appoint executive and judicial officers

25

New Jersey Plan

A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states; it called for a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court appointed for life.

26

Great Compromise

The final decision of the Constitutional Convention to create a two-house legislature, with the lower house elected by the people and powers divided between the two houses; also made national law supreme

27

Three-Fifths Compromise

Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that three-fifths of the total slave population of each state was to be for purposes of determining population for representation in the House of Representatives

28

Electoral College

The system established by the Constitution through which the president is chosen by electors of each state, which has many electoral votes as it has members of Congress

29

Alexander Hamilton

A key Framer who envisioned a powerful central government, co-authored The Federalists Papers, and served as the first Secretary of the Treasury

30

Montesquieu

The French baron and political theorist who first articulated the concept of separation of powers with checks and balances

31

federalism

The distribution of constitutional authority between state governments and the national government, with different powers and functions exercised by both.

32

separation of powers

a way of diving the power of the government among legislative, executive, and judicial branches, each staffed separately, with equality and independence of each branch ensured by the Constitution.

33

checks and balances

a constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others

34

Article 1

Vests all legislative powers in the Congress and establishes a bicameral legislature, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; it also sets out the qualifications for holding office, the methods of selection of representatives and senators, and the system of appointment among the states to determine membership in the House of Representatives

35

Article 2

Vests the executive power, the authority to execute the laws of the nation, in a U.S president; section 1 sets the president's term of office at 4 years and explains the electoral college and states qualifications for office and describes a mechanism to replace the president in case of death, disability, or removal from office.

36

Article 3

Establishes a Supreme Court and defines its jurisdiction

37

Article 5

Specifies how amendments can be added to the Constitution

38

Article 6

Contains the supremacy clause, which asserts the basic primacy of the Constitution and national law over state laws and constitutions

39

enumerated powers

the powers of the national government specifically granted to Congress in Article 1, section 8 of the constitution

40

necessary and proper clause

the final paragraph of Article 1, section 8, which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the constitution (AKA elastic clause)

41

implied powers

the powers of the national government derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary proper clause

42

inherent powers

powers that belong to the president because they are inferred from the Constitution

43

full faith and credit clause

Section of Article 4 of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state

44

supremacy clause

portion of Article 6 of the Constitution mandating that national law is supreme over all other laws passed by the states or any other subdivision of government

45

Federalists

those who favored a stronger national government and supported the Constitution; later became the first U.S political party

46

Anti-Federalists

Those who favored strong state governments and weak national governments; opposed the ratification of the Constitution

47

The Federalists Papers

a series of 85 political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of the ratification of the Constitution

48

James Madison

A key Framer often called "The Father of the Constitution" for his role in conceptualizing the federal government. Co-author of The Federalists Papers; served as secretary of state and as 4th president from 1809 to 1817

49

John Jay

a member of the Founding generation who was the first Chief Justice of the U.S. A diplomat and co-author of the Federalists Papers

50

Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the U.S Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties

51

Article 4

Mandates that states honor the laws and judicial proceedings of other states.