AP Gov Ch.3 Viridian Leal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AP Gov Ch.3 Viridian Leal Deck (55):
1

confederation

type of government in which the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states

2

Iroquois Confederacy

a political alliance of American Indian tribes established in the seventeenth century that featured aspects of the federal system of government adapted by the Framers

3

monarchy

a form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern the entire society

4

totalitarianism

a form of government in which power resides in leaders who rule by force in their own self-interest and without regard to rights and liberties

5

oligarchy

a form of government in which the right to participate depends on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement.

6

democracy

a system of government in which the national government and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people

7

unitary system

system of government in which the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government

8

enumerated powers

the powers of the national government specifically granted to Congress in Article 1, section 8 of the Constitution

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implied powers

the powers of the national government derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause

10

10th Amendment

the final part of The Bill of Rights that defines the basic principles of American federalism in stating that the powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states or to the people

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reserved powers

powers reserved to the states by the 10th Amendment that lie at the foundation of the state's rights to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens

12

concurrent powers

powers shared by the national and state governments

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bill of attainder

a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial

14

ex post facto law

law that makes an act punishable as a crime, even if the action was legal at the time it was committed

15

full faith and credit clause

Section of Article 4 of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state

16

privileges and immunities clause

part of Article 4 of the Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same right as citizens of all other states

17

extradition clause

part of Article 4 (IV) of the Constitution that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial

18

interstate compacts

contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as tool to address multi state policy concerns

19

Dillion's Rule

a premise articulated by Judge John F. Dillion in 1868 which states that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty and instead must be authorized by state governments that can create or abolish them

20

charter

a document that, like a constitution, specifies the basic policies, procedures, and institutions for local government. Charters for local governments must be approved by state legislatures.

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counties

the basic administrative units of local governments

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municipalities

city governments created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated areas

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special district

a local government that is restricted to a particular function

24

John Marshall

The longest-serving Supreme Court Chief Justice, Marshall served from 1801 to 1835. Marshall's decision in Marbury v. Madison in 1803 established the principle of judicial review in the U.S.

25

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

The Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of the state to tax the federal bank, using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.

26

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

The Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The Court's broad interpretation of the Constitution's commerce clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers.

27

Barron v. Baltimore (1833)

Supreme Court ruling that, before the Civil War, limited the applicability of the Bill of Rights to the federal government and not to the states

28

Roger B. Taney

Supreme Court Chief Justice who served from 1835-1864. Taney supported slavery and states' rights in the pre-Civil War era.

29

dual federalism

the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement, often referred to as layer-cake federalism.

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nilification

the belief in the right of a state to declare void a federal law

31

John C. Calhoun

a politician and political theorist from South Carolina who supported slavery and states' rights in the pre-Civil War era and served as vice president from 1825 to 1832

32

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)

A Supreme Court decision that ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and denied citizenship rights to enslaved African Americans. Dred Scott heightened tensions between the pro slavery South and the abolitionist North in the run up to the Civil War

33

Civil War

the military conflict from 1861 to 1865 in the U.S between the Northern forces of the Union and the Southern forces of the Confederacy. Over 600,00 Americans lost their lives during this war.

34

Abraham Lincoln

16th President of the U.S, first elected Republican president from 1861-1865. Led the Union through the Civil War and was assassinated in 1865 by a Confederate sympathizer, John Wilkes Booth.

35

secession

a unilateral assertion of independence by a geographic region within a country. The 11 Southern states making up the Confederacy during the Civil War seceded from the U.S.

36

Confederate States of America

the political system created by the eleven states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War, which ceased to exist upon the Union victory

37

Reconstruction

the period from 1865-1877 after the Civil War, in which the U.S. military occupied and dominated the eleven former states of the Confederacy

38

Andrew Johnson

17th President of the U.S., a Republican that served from 1865-1869. Johnson had served as Abraham Lincoln's vice president and became president after Lincoln's assassination.

39

16th Amendment

authorized Congress to enact a national income tax

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17th Amendment

senators directly elected by the people, removing their selection by state legislature

41

Calvin Coolidge

30th President of the U.S., a Republican who served from 1923-1929

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Herbert Hoover

31st President of the U.S., a Republican, who served from 1929-1933 during the start of the Great Depression

43

Franklin D. Roosevelt

32nd President of the U.S., a Democrat, who served from 1933-1945. FDR's leadership took the U.S. through the Great Depression and WW2.

44

New Deal

the name given to the program of "relief, recovery, reform" begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 to bring the U.S. out of the Great Depression

45

cooperative federalism

the intertwined relationship between national state, and local governments that began with the New Deal; often referred to as marble-cake federalism.

46

progressive federalism

a pragmatic approach to federalism that views relations between national and state governments as both coercive and cooperative

47

Barack Obama

The first African American President of the U.S., a democrat, who served as the 44th president from 2009-2017. Senator from Illinois from 2005-2008; member of the Illinois Senate from 1997-2004.

48

categorical grants

grants that appropriate federal funds to states for a specific purpose

49

Lyndon B. Johnson

36th President of the U.S., a Democrat, who served from 1964-1969. LBJ led the nation during the Civil Rights era and the Vietnam War

50

Great Society

reform program begun in 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson that was a broad attempt to combat poverty and discrimination through urban renewal, education reform, and unemploRoyment relief.

51

Ronadl Reagan

40th President of the U.S., a Republican that served from 1981-1989. Reagan led the nation through the end of the Cold War and his leadership led to a national shift toward political conservatism.

52

New Federalism

Federal-state relationship proposed by the Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to state governments

53

block grant

a large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines

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programmatic requests

federal funds designated for special projects within a state or congressional district; also called earmarks

55

federal system

system of government in which the national government and state governments share powers and derive all authority from the people