The appraisal processes fans a wide of variety of specific activities including:
Clinical interviewing, behavior observations , neuropsychological testing, career interest and ability measurements, occupational assessments, academic evaluation.
Range from 0.0 to +1.0 with Scores of .75 higher considered strong in most situations.
Reliability coefficient of 1.00 indicates a perfect score which has no error.
Is commonly defined as the consistency of a test or the degree to which yields the same results.
Reliable test is not always valid.
Test retest reliability
Same subject are given the same test twice to see if the scores are consistent.
Measures temporal effects
If test is used to influence performance, test retest may be less accurately estimated.
Split half procedures
Examiner can artificially create parallel forms of test by splitting the items in half and measuring the consistency of the test halves.
Spearman brown formula is used to calculate a general estimate based on split half procedures.
Sometimes you inflated estimate of the reliability
Standard error of measurement (SEM)
Is alternative method to check reliability.
68% of the time, an examines true score would fall within +1 and -1 SEM.
A test with a small SEM has a higher reliability coefficient (.75 to 1.0)
A test with a large SEM has a low reliability coefficient ( 0.0 to .24)
Factors that affect reliability
Homogeneity- A greater number of similar item yield increase reliability estimates.
Test retest interval
Other systematic such as guessing and unsystematic uncontrolled factors.
Is generally defined as the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed too.
A valid test is always reliable
A simple form validity where you apply a superficial and a subjective assessment of whether or not you study or test measures what it is supposed to measure
Example: IQ test
Looks or appears to measure the intended attribute
Refers to the degree to which a sample of test items adequately represent or cover the content area the test is supposed to measure.
Example: achievement test
Criterion related validity
Determine the extent to which a test can predict,diagnosed, or classify an individuals behavior in specific situations
There are three types: predictive, diagnostic, and concurrent
Example: applicant takes a performance test or GRE or SAT
Three types of criterion validity
- predicts future outcome
- such as ACT/SAT/GRE
- try to diagnose or identify an existing state.
- examples: test for adult memories of childhood
-written drivers license is replace in person test
Is the extent to which a test measures a concept, construct, or traits of interest.
Example of measurements of the human brain such as, intelligence ,level of emotion ,proficiency or ability
Compare and contrast. Example ego strength
Criterion referenced versus normative reference tests
Criterion reference assessments compares group or individual performance with predetermined set of criteria believed to be important or essential.
Normative referenced assessments compares individuals with each other and\or groups who took the same test previously.
Example: Most current standardized test
A client who takes a normative test can
Legitimately be compared to others who have taken the test
Objective versus subjective test
Subjective test require the information of an answer from a limited or ambiguous stimulus and are, therefore, more difficult to take and to score/grade.
- this may produce greater test validity.
- for example: essay or fill in the blank
Objective tests requires subject to a single answer out of already provided answers
- for example: multiple-choice
Free choice versus forced choices
Free choice or free response: person taking the test can respond in any manner he or she chooses.
-for example short answer test
Forced choice: known as recognition item.
-example: NCE, MMPI – 2, MMPI
True and false has dichotomous recognition items
Spiral test vs cyclical test
Spiral test the items get progressively more difficult.
Cyclical test you have several sections which are spiral in nature
Individually administer test advantages and disadvantages
Advantages: The clinician can establish greater rapport and gain a greater understanding of each client.
Disadvantage: individual testing is time consuming and expensive.
Group test advantages versus disadvantages
Advantages: group testing tends towards more objective scoring.
Norms are better established
Group testing is cheaper
No rapport established
Group testing is dependent
On the reading skills of the examinee
Types of standardized test
Achievement test, aptitude test, intelligence test, interest, attitudes, and value tests, psychopathology tests, personality test.
The Myers Briggs type indicator
Reflect the work of Carl Jung
Self-report questionnaire claiming to indicate psychological preferences and how people perceive the world around them and make decisions
16 personality factor questionnaire
Reflects the work of Raymond B. Cattell
The Stanford Binet intelligence scale
Binet introduce the concept of mental age (MA) which is the average score for a given age.
Has a mean of 100, standard deviation of 15, SEM of 10
Wechsler adult intelligence scale III (WAIS-III)
Is in individually a administered measure of a person’s capability for intelligent behavior
Ages 16 to 74 years
Comparison of the WAIS-III and the Stanford Binet
WAIS has achieved much larger acceptance
The Stanford Binet is more sensitive to lower levels of mental ability and is preferred in many state schools and rehabilitation settings
Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV)
David Weshsler’s concept of intelligence as a global but is valuable for psychoeducational assessment, placement and planning.
Ages 6 to 16 yrs 11mo
Mean100 SD 15
Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI-III)
Is a standardized Measure of intelligence ability of young children.
Ages three years to seven years and three months
Mean if 100 standard deviation is 15
Otis Lennon school ability (OLSAT)
Is in intelligence test which can be administered to a group. It can’t be used to determine students who might qualify for gifted and talented program
William Wundt founded one of the first psychological laboratory to conduct?
Diane versus California state board of education
Schools must provide test to students and their first language as well as in English to limit linguistics biases
Minnesota multiphasic personality II (MMPI-2)
It is primarily intended to test people who are suspected of having mental health or other clinical issues. Is currently commonly administer one of two forms which is 563 true false questions. The new test was publish into 2008 contains only 338 true or false question
Mental retardation is related to developmental deficiencies
Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, reliability :
Is used when test items results in multipoint responses
For example, likert scales with a four point response format.
No one can complete them in allotted time
Example: arithmetic portion of the WRAT. Coding and symbol search on the WISC and WAIS
Some very difficult items which few if any subjects are able to answer correctly
Example: final items on almost any subtitles on intelligence and achievement measure