Flashcards in Career Devlopment Deck (39):
Traits and factors career theory
Developed by Frank Parsons
Recognized as the father of guidance.
Three part model: traits, factors and true reasoning
Sometimes referred as the matching theory
Personality career and vocational theory:
Is sometimes described as structural because it links various personality clip characteristics and corresponding jobs.
Holland's theory has developed three instruments that it can use by career counselor:
Vocational preference inventory (VPI)
Self directed search (SDS)
Vocational exploration and insight kit ( VEIK)
Different personality types require different emotions
Roe's theory was based on two major personality theories:
The work of Gardner Murphy theorized relatively predictable development of psychic energy and early childhood experiences and later vocational choice.
Maslow' concept of needs
Roe saw vocational choice as heavily affected by the child rearing practices used while the individual was developing.
Emotional concentration on the child
- over protecting and at the same time over demanding behavior which makes the child dependent on parental approval.
Avoidance of the child
– Emotional rejection of the child
Acceptance of the child
- incorporating of the child into the family unit As an equal and encouraging independence.
Roe categorize jobs into :
Roe: eight fields
Service, business contact, organizations, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts and entertainment.
Roe's six levels
Professional and managerial
Professional and managerial
( less independence or fewer responsibilities)
Semi professional and small businesses.
Social learning theory
Is an outgrowth of general social learning theory of behavior proposed by Albert Bandura
Social theory suggests:
An individual can you control your little or none of the genetic background.
Genetic background effects the learning experience.
Individual personality and behavioral patterns arise primarily from his unique learning experiences rather than from innate development.
Recognizes that humans are intelligent, problem-solving individual
Not deterministic theory but individuals always posses alternative
Krumboltz, mitchel,and gelatt identify four factors that can influence a career decision:
Genetic endowment and special abilities such as race and sex.
Environmental conditions and events such as number\nature of job, neighborhood influences.
- instrumental learning experience (ILEs)
- associative learning experience (ALEs)
Tasks approach skills such as problem-solving skills and work habits.
His theory as a loosely unified group of theories dealing with distinct phases of career development taken from developmental, differential,phenomenological, and social psychology and held together by self concept or a personal construct theory.
Super's life stages
Growth life stage (birth to 14 yrs)
Exploration life stage (14-24 yrs)
Establishment (24-44 hrs)
Maintenance (44-64 yrs)
Decline life stage (age 64 and up)
Growth lifestage task: 3 sub stages
Fantasy (4-10 yrs)
Needs are dominant; role-playing in fantasy is important.
Interest (11-12 yrs)
Likes are the major determinant of aspirations and activities.
Capacity (13-14 yrs)
Abilities are given more weight and Job requirements are considered
Exploration life stages: 3 sub stages
Tentative (14-15 yrs)
Tentative choices are made.
Crystallizing a vocational preference
Transition (18-21 yrs)
Reality considerations are give me more weight.
Specifying vocational preference.
Trial (with) Little commitment (22-24 yrs)
First job, commitment provisional
Establishment life stage: two sub stages
Trial commitment and stabilization (25-30 yrs)
Results and one or more changes before life work is found.
Advancement (31-44 yrs)
Effort is put forth to stabilize.
Maintenance life stages: 1 substage
Accepting one from limitations, identifying new problems to work on, developing new skills
Decline life stage: 2 substages
Deceleration (65 to 70 yrs)
Duties are shift
Many men find part-time job to replace their full time job
Retirement (71 yrs and up)
Variation on complete cessation of work
Ship to part time, volunteer, leisure activities
Super depicts life span, life role development through the life career rainbow:
6 life roles:
Child, student, leisurite, Citizen, worker and homemaker.
5 life stages:
Growth, exploration, establishment, maintanance,and decline
Super's career maturity: readiness of individuals to make good career choices.
Career planning, career exploitation, decision-making, world of work information, and knowledge of preferred occupational group.
Developmental\lifespan career theory:
Ginsberg, Ginsburg, axeland, and Herman investigated:
Upper middle-class, white, Protestant, and Catholic population, identifying three major periods in the career choice process:
Fantasy (0-11 yrs)
Tentative (11-18 yrs)
Realistic (18 yrs into the 20s)
Developmental\Life span theory:
Schlossberg defined the career transition process as changes that take place over time, four distinct types of career transitions:
Anticipated career transitions
- events that will happen in the lifespan of most individuals, such as marriage.
Unacticipated career transitions
- unexpected events such as fired
-situation such as a long commute to work
- events that don't happen such as promotions that doesn't happen
Decision making career and vocational theory:
Teidemsn's model has seven steps:
Anticipation or preoccupation
- expiration, crystallization, choice and clarification.
Implementation or accommodation
- induction, re-formation, and integration.
Is proactive rather than reactive.
Use a cubistic model of decision-making.
Model includes the four levels:
- Learning, problem-solving, solution using and solution reviewing.
Each level have a hierarchy of decision strategies
Focus on self empowerment and utilization of "I"
Janis and Mann
4 defective parents of decision-making:
-person denies any serious risk from current course of action.
un-conflicted change to new course of action
- denies any serious risk in making a decision or change
-avoid choice that stimulate anxiety or painful feeling and give up looking for solution.
-become emotionally excited as time constraints.
Hoppock composite theory
Found Robert Hoppock
Produce occupational information
Use as a critical reference
Sources of information:
Dictionary of occupational titles
Published by the United States Department of Labor contains information about approximately 22,000 jobs in 9 categories.
The first digit refers to one of nine occupational categories.
The next two digits indicates one of 82 occupational division
Middle three numbers refers to worker traits.
The final three digits indicates the alphabetical order of title
Occupational outlook handbook
Published by the United States department of labor.
List over 800 of the most popular careers
It's forcast the employment growth phase is for these career
The guide for occupational exploration
3 digits codes.
Similar to DOT code
Difference is that these codes are more related to the interest requirements of the occupation than are the DOT codes.
Enhances Guide for occupational exploration
Use a three digit cod, but codes are more related to the interest requirements of occupations.
Standard occupational classification manual (SOC)
Clusters jobs by similar work functions rather than by interest.
There are four levels of classification:
Computer software dealing with career choices are:
Computer assistant career guidance
Systems are rapidly becoming a core element in the delivery of career and educational guidance services in the United States
Factors affecting women
Tokenism- Low proportion of ones sex in a workplace dominate by the opposite sex.
Lack of role models
Discontinuities in female career development
- Women choosing not to have kids because is viewed as a barrier.
- multiple responsibilities
Dual career families
Both man and women are wage earner.
Identity tension lines:
Point beyond which the violation of sex roles stabilization become uncomfortable for the individual, both male and female
Benefits of dual career marriage
Feeling of self-worth
more roles in which to define success
Higher standard of living
Child care support policies in some employment organizations.
More egalitarian roles
Women who believe they are incapable of performing certain test (low self efficacy)limits their career mobility and restrict their career options.
Types of sexual-harassment
Gender harassment, seductive behavior, sexual bribery, sexual coercion, and sexual assault.