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Flashcards in Human Development Deck (30):

Sigmund Freud
Freud's concept of the unconscious
Psychoanalytic theory

Conscious mind
- known impulses, events, memories, present knowledge.
Preconscious mind
-easily recalled but not currently known memories and drives
-emotions,thoughts, memories ,drives, etc that are influencing behavior without current awareness; hidden or forgotten memories.


What is topographical concept?

Freud's concept of the unconscious is the greatest contribution.

Freud notion of the unconscious,preconscious and conscious mind.

Freud said the mind look like an iceberg


Freud's system of personality

- is present at birth, function of the pleasure principle, and is not rational.
- is a psychological component that wields power over the id.
- function under the reality principle
-ego is pressed by the I'd to give in to pleasure despite the consequence.
- ego function in conscious and preconscious mind.

- represent the social component
- superego pursues perfection
- guilty feelings result from violation of the standards and morals set by the superego


Freud's psychosexual stages are:

1). Oral- 0-2 years: pleasure derived from sucking. Infants put everything in their mouths.

2) anal- 2-3 years: first experience of "imposed control" is found in the form of toilet training.

3) phallic- 3-6 years: pleasure is derived from fondling genitals.

4) latency-6- puberty: child is less concerned with body. Child is seeking coping skills for his or her environment.

5) genital- puberty: interests in others and to love in a more mature way.


Phallic ages 3-6 years

Oedipus complex:
Boys desire sexual relations with his mother.

Electra complex:
The girl desires to sexual relations with father.

Oedipus complex is the most controversial


Ego defense mechanism

Is the result of conflict among the Id, Ego, and the superego.

Freudians Believe that repression is the most important of the ego defense mechanisms.


Ego defense mechanism there's 16

Displacement, rationalization , compensation, projection reaction formulation, denial ,repression, identification substitution, fantasy ,regression ,sublimation ,introjection, undoing, emotional insulation, and isolation


Carl Jung analytical psychology

Grew out of disagreement with Freud that neuroses originated in the libido (sexual origin)


Carl Jung analytical psychology

Logos vs Eros

Man operate on logic or the logos principal.

Women operate on intuition or the Eros principal


Carl Jung: archetypes

are the common, collective unconscious which is passed on from generation to generation.

Some common archetypes are:
-anima: female characteristics of the personality
-animus: male characteristics of the personality
-shadow: unconscious opposite of a person's personality
-persona: mask worn or the role presented to hide one true self


Alfred alder
Individual psychology

Hoslistic view of development, individual psychology ,asserts that what an individual is born with or into (heredity and environment) it's not determining factor in one's development.


Harry Stack Sullivan

The most influential therapist to discuss the importance of friendships.

Person experiences interpersonal relationships and thus experience ego formation through these three models:
1). Protaxic: infancy, The amp it has no concept of time and place.
2). Parataxic- early childhood, The child accepts what is without question or evaluating and then reacts on realistic basis.
3). Syntactic: later childhood, The child is able to evaluate his or her own thoughts and feelings against those of others and learns about relationship patterns in society.


Karen horney
"Basic anxiety"

Neurosis is the outworking of what Horney called basic anxiety.

Alleviating the basic anxiety stemming from the apprehension and insecurities caused by being raised by neurotic parents becomes the major focus.


Erik Erickson

Ego identity
is the balance of what "one feels one is and what other take one to be".

Identity crisis
An adolescent is not able to integrate all of his or her previous roles into a single self concept.

Maturation theory
By Freud and Erickson


Erickson eight stages of development

1. Early infancy-trust versus mistrust
2. Later infancy – autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. Early childhood – initiative versus guilt
4. Middle childhood – industry versus inferiority
5. Adolescence – Identity versus role confusion
6. Early adulthood – intimacy versus isolation
7. Middle adulthood – generativity versus stagnation
8- late adulthood – integrity versus despair


Cognitive theories
Jean Piaget

Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
Object permanence develops (realize objects exist even when they no longer see you)

Pre-operational (2-6 years)
Child cannot distinguish between his or hers perspective is someone else's.

Concrete operational (6-12 years)
The child operates in the here and now yet is able to mentally visualize and make mental representations. For example, the child is able to tell how to get from home to the gas station.

Formal operations (12 years plus)
The child is able to think abstractly and logically and can apply since systematic deductive reasoning to hypothetical and contrary to fact problems.

Piaget felt that many people attains these operations


Jean Piaget

Achieved during concrete operational stage

The understanding that the weight, mass and volume remains the same in spite of the shape


Jean Piaget

The quality of focusing on a key factor rather than the whole object.

For example, looking at someone glasses instead of their whole face


Jean Piaget

The quality of not being able to view in object from another's vantage point


Cognitive theory
Kohlberg's levels and stages of moral development
Level 1

Level one
Preconventional morality( around age 4 to 10 years)
Self guided moral behavior with accompanying consequences (premoral).
Stage one: obedience and punishment
- punishment is more important than societies expectations are the laws.

Stage two: instrumental/ relativist orientation
-and individual social judgment and interactions are based out of self-needs (self-centeredness)


Kohlberg's levels and stages of moral development
Level two

Conventional morality (around ages 10 to 13 years)
Social judgment and interaction are base out of a desire to meet the expectations of the family and society.

Stage three: interpersonal concordance orientation
-good girl/good boy characteristics this levels. Behavior is chosen to please and gain approval.

Stage four: Authority, Law, and duty orientation
- rules and laws are viewed as promoting the common good and maintaining social order;therefore ,there is a duty to obey them.


Kohlberg's moral development
Level 3

Postconventional morality (around ages 13 and older)
Moral behavior is guided by a self accepted/ self imposed commitment to moral principles.

Stage five: Society as a whole examines moral principles and then agrees upon or change them by consensus.

Stage six: and individuals social judgment and interactions or a based out of universal principles instead of the rules of society.


John Watson

Watson is regarded as the father of behavioralism.

Little Albert experiment

Convinced that a person's behavior is shaped through conditioning from birth.

Proved that CS, paired with an UCS leads to UCR, then can lead to CS causing UR.


BF Skinner: the principle of reinforcement
Type of learning in operant conditioning

Schedule of reinforcement

Fixed interval schedule
Reinforcement is given after a certain fixed period. The amount of work done (the number of responses) does not affect when reinforcement is given.
For example, people who receive salaries. Get paid at a set time of the month.

Variable interval schedule
Reinforcement is given at variable (unpredictable) intervals of time.
For example,if you call your friend and she's on the line. It maybe 7 mins for you get in touch with her. The next time it may takes you only 3 mins

Fixed ratio schedule
Reinforcement is giving after a set number of responses are perform.
For example, you hired to sew shirts. You are under paid after you sew the 12th shirt. Not 3 or 4, but every 12th shirt

Variable ratios schedule ( most predictable)
The number of responses required before being reinforced is unpredictable/ continually changing.
For example, you're playing at a slot machine put them in a quarter. You know that there is a chance of winning. However you don't know how many quarters it will take for you to win.


H.F. Harlow

Study rhesus monkey. Study look at the bonding process or contact comfort using infant monkeys in Terry cloth to substitute the mother.

Researchers discovered that monkeys became attached to the Terry cloth.

The monkeys clung to cloth in stressful situations.

Preferred artificial mothers that rock and preferred warm substituted mothers


Konrad Lorenz

Found dad a brief period of irreversible imprinting (bonding) occurs during a critical period .

A period in which a particular behavior must be learned or it won't be acquired or learned at all.


John Bowlby

Study emphasized the adaptive or adaptive significance of attachment.

Bonding and attachment are necessary for survival.

Adaption to prolonged separation from a caregiver has three stages:
1. Protest – not accepting the separation; cries
2. Despair- give up hopes; quiet; withdrawn
3. Detachment: except attention from other and is unmoved when caregiver return


Baumrind and her colleagues described three parenting styles:

Parents deliberately try to shape the behavior of the Child according to their own standard of conduct.

Keeping hands off and letting children be themselves with the hopes that this will encourage the child to be self-reliant.

This approach is the most effective. The parents have a define standards, but encourage the child to be independent.


Daniel Levinson

Interviewed middle aged man from different backgrounds.

Discovered both white-collar and blue-collar man exhibit the same patterns.

Levinson viewed mid life crisis a positive experience


Ivan Pavlov classical conditionin/ respondent conditioning

Before condition
The dog food (UCS) production salivation (UCR)

During condition
The dog food ( UCS), is paired with ringing of the bell (neutral) so that the bell becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) producing of salivation (CR).

After conditioning
The bell (CS) produces salivation (CR)