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Flashcards in Culture Deck (39):
1

Leon Festinger

Is associated with the theory of social comparison.

Cognitive dissonance research deals mainly with cognition and attitude formation.

Connotative error can occur when a counselor misunderstood what a client was trying to say.

2

William McDougall

Was influential in early social psychology

3

PB Peterson

Developed the triad model for training cross-cultural counselor

4

DW Sue

She found that minorities are less likely to see counseling.

Termination rate at that the first interview is 50% for minorities and 30% Anglos

5

Zimbardo

Did a prison study that demonstrated that people alter their behaviors to fit their assigned role

6

Family life cycle stages

Young adulthood
Couples with no children
Couples with children
Family with adolescent children
Launching phase
Families in later life

7

Social context issues

Women in the workplace
Teen pregnancy
Aging
Grief and loss: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
Abuse
Substance abuse
Disabilities

8

For a basic type of conflict

Approach approach conflict
Approach avoidance conflict
Avoidance avoidance conflict
Double approach avoidance conflict

9

Aggression social learning theory

Aggression is learned found by Albert Bandura

10

Spirituality

Involve personal beliefs, such as those about ultimate human condition, a supreme being, or a unity with nature and the universe

11

Intrinsic versus extrinsic
Religiosity
Griffith and Rotter

Intrinsic religiosity:
Is religion belief that relates to all of life and is unprejudiced, tolerant, mature. This type of religion can enhance well-being.

Extrinsic religiosity:
Is said to be compartmentalized, prejudiced, Immature, self-serving. Extrinsic religiosity is it used as a defense mechanism as opposed to intrinsic religiosity which encourages growth and wellness.

12

The lead causes of death in the United States

Adults: heart disease, cancer, and strokes.

Adolescents: alcohol related accidents, homicide, and suicide

Infant: congenital and chromosomal abnormalities, short gestation/Low birth rate, and SIDS

13

Durkheim explains The sociological approach to suicide as a reaction to the societal pressure and influences: there are three types of suicide:

Egoistic
Anomic
Altruistic

14

Emic approach

Culture is study from within the system. Comparisons are made to internal structure and not to external systems or theories.

Emic counselors would become directly immersed in the culture by living within it and by believing that mental health is "relative"; what is "crazy" in one society is "sane" in another.

Emic view "emphasizes individual differences"

15

Emic approach counselor

Will help the client to understand his or her own culture

16

Etic approach

Culture is studied and understood in terms of how it differs from or is similar to other cultures shared dimensions.

Culture is examined from an external viewpoint; cultural differences are seen as surface variations of underlying structures shared by all.

Freud and Ellis are ethics with their concept postulated to "apply to everyone".

17

Etic approach counselor

Focuses on the similarities and people; treating people as being the same

18

Autoplastic- alloplastic
Approach

Autoplastic:
Changes are changes in oneself; therefore, clients are encouraged to "change themselves" to accommodate the external circumstances.

Alloplastic
Changes are changes in the external environment; therefore, a clients outside world is manipulated to effect change

19

Autoplastic

Implies that the counselor helps the client change to cope with his or her environment

20

Alloplastic

Occurs when the counselor has the Client try to change the environment

21

Cross cultural counseling

Will display knowledge of the different cultures of both their clients and self.
Will be culturally sensitive have skills and consulting and working indigenous network.
Will use techniques that's appropriate.
Will be culturally competent.
Able to write in objective and culturally manner.

22

Two legislative activities that influence of multicultural counseling:

Brown versus the Kansas Board of Education
The civil rights act of 1964

23

Multicultural counseling

Refers to the preparation and practices that integrate multicultural and cultural specific awareness, knowledge, and skills into counseling interactions.

It is said to be the fourth force of counseling theory.

Research indicates their clients prefer a counselor of the same race and\or cultural background

Drop out rate of ethnic minority clients is about 50% fall in the first session

24

Therapeutic surrender

Client psychologically surrenders to a counselor from a different culture and becomes open with feelings and thoughts

25

Counseling barriers in cross cultural counseling

Language differences
Class bond values
Culture bound values

Clients prefer a counselor of the same race and similar cultural backgrounds

26

American ethnic minorities

American Indian or Alaskan native
Black or African-American
Hispanic Americans
Asian American

27

American Indians or Alaska native facts

Have a deep respect for natural resources.
Since of eye contact may indicate lack of respect.
Native Americans experience a higher rate of alcoholism.
Suicide rate is high, Peeking in the 20s or early 30s

28

American Indian or Alaska native counseling issues

Reluctant to engage in consideration of Emotional issues with strangers.

Family involvement is very important

Native cultures values listening

Appropriate techniques include respectful, patience, homebase counseling, and directive intervention

29

Black or African-American facts

High suicide rate is present among black males with depression.

Black infant death rates are higher than whites.

Feeling of powerlessness

Higher rates of hypertension and higher rates of sickle cell anemia.

Black middle class moving away from traditional professions and into business, sciences and technology

30

Five sprints of blacks including the following:

Adoptability family roles, strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, strong religious orientation, and strong achievement orientation

31

Black families counseling issues

Presenting problem includes psychosomatic difficulties, self-esteem issue especially with males, violence and substance abuse.

Structured approaches, self disclosure, inclusion of spirituality, cycle education of social or vocational skills

32

Hispanic facts

Hispanic population is the larges united states Minority group.

Machismo and marianismo are constructs that tends to organize gender roles in their culture.

Men often consider their role as leaders

33

Hispanic families counseling issues

Presenting problems include struggles of loyalty and disloyalty when transitioning away from the family, conflict and culturally demands of different generations, violence, teen pregnancy, and self-esteem issues in women

34

Asian American facts

Many Asian families consider eye to eye contact shameful
This is especially true for women who may believe that only women with low morals make eye contact.
Physical and verbal expression of love uncommon

35

Ethnocentrism

Refers to using ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the way others, individuals, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.

36

Eclecticism

Refers to employing the techniques from more than one theoretical orientation

Multicultural counseling promotes
Eclecticism

37

The frustration aggression theory is associate with :

John Dillard and Neal Miller

38

Mores are beliefs

Regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior

39

Universal culture

Biological similarities and sameness are indicated by universal culture.