Is associated with the theory of social comparison.
Cognitive dissonance research deals mainly with cognition and attitude formation.
Connotative error can occur when a counselor misunderstood what a client was trying to say.
Was influential in early social psychology
Developed the triad model for training cross-cultural counselor
She found that minorities are less likely to see counseling.
Termination rate at that the first interview is 50% for minorities and 30% Anglos
Did a prison study that demonstrated that people alter their behaviors to fit their assigned role
Family life cycle stages
Young adulthood Couples with no children Couples with children Family with adolescent children Launching phase Families in later life
Social context issues
Women in the workplace Teen pregnancy Aging Grief and loss: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Abuse Substance abuse Disabilities
For a basic type of conflict
Approach approach conflict
Approach avoidance conflict
Avoidance avoidance conflict
Double approach avoidance conflict
Aggression social learning theory
Aggression is learned found by Albert Bandura
Involve personal beliefs, such as those about ultimate human condition, a supreme being, or a unity with nature and the universe
Intrinsic versus extrinsic
Griffith and Rotter
Is religion belief that relates to all of life and is unprejudiced, tolerant, mature. This type of religion can enhance well-being.
Is said to be compartmentalized, prejudiced, Immature, self-serving. Extrinsic religiosity is it used as a defense mechanism as opposed to intrinsic religiosity which encourages growth and wellness.
The lead causes of death in the United States
Adults: heart disease, cancer, and strokes.
Adolescents: alcohol related accidents, homicide, and suicide
Infant: congenital and chromosomal abnormalities, short gestation/Low birth rate, and SIDS
Durkheim explains The sociological approach to suicide as a reaction to the societal pressure and influences: there are three types of suicide:
Culture is study from within the system. Comparisons are made to internal structure and not to external systems or theories.
Emic counselors would become directly immersed in the culture by living within it and by believing that mental health is “relative”; what is “crazy” in one society is “sane” in another.
Emic view “emphasizes individual differences”
Emic approach counselor
Will help the client to understand his or her own culture
Culture is studied and understood in terms of how it differs from or is similar to other cultures shared dimensions.
Culture is examined from an external viewpoint; cultural differences are seen as surface variations of underlying structures shared by all.
Freud and Ellis are ethics with their concept postulated to “apply to everyone”.
Etic approach counselor
Focuses on the similarities and people; treating people as being the same
Changes are changes in oneself; therefore, clients are encouraged to “change themselves” to accommodate the external circumstances.
Changes are changes in the external environment; therefore, a clients outside world is manipulated to effect change
Implies that the counselor helps the client change to cope with his or her environment
Occurs when the counselor has the Client try to change the environment
Cross cultural counseling
Will display knowledge of the different cultures of both their clients and self.
Will be culturally sensitive have skills and consulting and working indigenous network.
Will use techniques that’s appropriate.
Will be culturally competent.
Able to write in objective and culturally manner.
Two legislative activities that influence of multicultural counseling:
Brown versus the Kansas Board of Education
The civil rights act of 1964
Refers to the preparation and practices that integrate multicultural and cultural specific awareness, knowledge, and skills into counseling interactions.
It is said to be the fourth force of counseling theory.
Research indicates their clients prefer a counselor of the same race and\or cultural background
Drop out rate of ethnic minority clients is about 50% fall in the first session
Client psychologically surrenders to a counselor from a different culture and becomes open with feelings and thoughts
Counseling barriers in cross cultural counseling
Class bond values
Culture bound values
Clients prefer a counselor of the same race and similar cultural backgrounds
American ethnic minorities
American Indian or Alaskan native
Black or African-American
American Indians or Alaska native facts
Have a deep respect for natural resources.
Since of eye contact may indicate lack of respect.
Native Americans experience a higher rate of alcoholism.
Suicide rate is high, Peeking in the 20s or early 30s
American Indian or Alaska native counseling issues
Reluctant to engage in consideration of Emotional issues with strangers.
Family involvement is very important
Native cultures values listening
Appropriate techniques include respectful, patience, homebase counseling, and directive intervention
Black or African-American facts
High suicide rate is present among black males with depression.
Black infant death rates are higher than whites.
Feeling of powerlessness
Higher rates of hypertension and higher rates of sickle cell anemia.
Black middle class moving away from traditional professions and into business, sciences and technology
Five sprints of blacks including the following:
Adoptability family roles, strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, strong religious orientation, and strong achievement orientation
Black families counseling issues
Presenting problem includes psychosomatic difficulties, self-esteem issue especially with males, violence and substance abuse.
Structured approaches, self disclosure, inclusion of spirituality, cycle education of social or vocational skills
Hispanic population is the larges united states Minority group.
Machismo and marianismo are constructs that tends to organize gender roles in their culture.
Men often consider their role as leaders
Hispanic families counseling issues
Presenting problems include struggles of loyalty and disloyalty when transitioning away from the family, conflict and culturally demands of different generations, violence, teen pregnancy, and self-esteem issues in women
Asian American facts
Many Asian families consider eye to eye contact shameful
This is especially true for women who may believe that only women with low morals make eye contact.
Physical and verbal expression of love uncommon
Refers to using ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the way others, individuals, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
Refers to employing the techniques from more than one theoretical orientation
Multicultural counseling promotes
The frustration aggression theory is associate with :
John Dillard and Neal Miller
Mores are beliefs
Regarding the rightness or wrongness of behavior
Biological similarities and sameness are indicated by universal culture.