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Psychoanalytic therapy:

Sigmund Freud

Concentrates on the client's past and her early childhood events.

Brings the clients unconscious to the conscious

Work through repressed conflict


Freud's structure of personality

Id: pleasure principle, no sense of time, no maturity, chaotic

Ego: functions to contact real world. See saw between id and superego

Superego: moral, values, feelings of guilt


Sexual in aggressive impulses to personality development

Oedipus complex
Sons attraction for his mother

Electra complex
Daughter attraction for her father

Most controversial aspect of this theory is Oedipus complex


Catharsis / abreaction

Purging of emotions and feelings by giving them expression


Eros and Thanatos

Eros Greek god of love of life

Thanatos is the Greek word for death


Psychoanalytic techniques

Interputation help the client to gain insight both past and present events.
Dream analysis meaning of dream
Free association verbalizing whatever comes to mind
analyzes of resistance
Analyzes of transference


Freud psychoanalytical model was first counseling

Authored the interpretation of dreams.

Anna O. thought to be the first psychoanalytic patient diagnosed hysteria.

Little Hans Freud first his constructs of Oedipal complex and castration anxiety

Daniel schreber 9 years old unconscious homosexual feelings


Ego defense mechanism

Viewing another person's feelings and ideas that are unacceptable so the other person seems to have these feelings and ideas

For example feeling like a coward and handling a situation but blaming the outcome on the coward of the other person


Ego defense mechanism


Is the taking in, absorbing or incorporating into oneself the standards and values of another person

For example a client who has Incorporated his father's values into his own thought patterns


Ego defense mechanism

Attempt to overcome feelings of inferiority by taking on characteristics of someone else

For example Jane feels inferior. She's the president of the women shelter. Every time she goes to a social event she will introduce herself and the president of the women's shelter


Ego defense mechanism


Means attempting to overcome be in Friday associated with feelings of inferiority in one area by concentrating on another.

Example ted feels stupid. Ted works out four hours a day in is taking dangerous steroids .


Ego defense mechanism

Reaction formation

Involve exaggerating and openly displayed a trait that is opposite of the tendencies that we do not want to recognize.

For example Morgan is obsessed with watching porn. Secretly he is doing the job because he wants to be able to view porn for free


Ego defense mechanism

Means of failing or refusing or acknowledge or deal with reality.

For example a kid has a broken arm from a car accident. The kid wants to play tennis and send in a form anyway


Ego defense mechanism


Justifying behavior one self and others

Example student not being upset for making an F and says straight A are for eggheads


Ego defense mechanisms.


Means of the displacing or directing emotions onto a person or object other than the one who originally aroused the emotion.

For example, a man got a nickel raise but was expecting a dollar. Goals home and yells at wife.


Ego defense mechanisms


Is redirecting of unacceptable impulses into socially and culturally acceptable channel.

For example, aggressive male becoming a boxer.


Ego defense mechanisms


Is in unconscious process of blocking urges or traumatic experiences.

Is automatic and involuntary

Suppression differs from repression in that repression is automatic.

For example a couple witnesses the violent death of a coworker


Adlerian therapy

Individual psychology

The founder is Alfred alder

Help the client develop a healthy self-esteem and lifestyle through reeducation and restructuring.

Lifestyles, birth order, and family reconcile are emphasized by Alder


Carl Jung

Analytical psychology

Jung broadened Freud's concept of the unconscious.

Jung used mandalas

Personality types: thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuitive.

Bipolar personality type used in the Myers-Briggs type II indicator are associated with Jung.


Extroversion and introversion

By Jung

Is a turning in towards oneself as the main source of pleasure.

Seeks pleasure and satisfaction in other


Erik Erickson

Psychosocial stages

Birth to one year- trust versus mistrust
1 year to 2 years – autonomy vs shame and doubt
3 to 5 years - initiative versus guilt
6 to 11 years- Industry versus inferiority
12 to 20 years- Identity versus role confusion
20-35 years- intimacy versus isolation
35-65 years- generativity versus stagnation
65 years and older- integrity versus despair


Harry stack Sullivan

Ego formation:
Protaxic- infancy, no concept of time and place.

Parataxic: early childhood; child excepts without questioning.

Syntactic: later childhood; child is able to evaluate his or her own thoughts and feelings


Existential humanistic therapy

Major figures:
Abraham Maslow- self actualization
Rollo May- existential US
Victor Frankl- founder of logotherapy

Focuses primarily on the clients perception in the here and now



Be in the world is spoken of having three different patterns:

Unwelt - physical

Mitwelt- relationships

Eigenwelt- self identity


Victor frankl
Believe that there are three ways to discover meaning in one's life

Doing a good deed

Experiencing a value



Martin Buber

Coin the term "I-thou"

Meeting horizontally equal relationships with others


Person centered therapy

Existential approach

Major figure
Carl rogers

There are three for conditions of the therapist:
Unconditional positive regard
Accurate empathy


Person centered model techniques

Reflection, confrontation, open ended questions, summarization, clarification, support, reassurance, and active listening


Gestalt therapy

Experiential approach

Gestalt does not translate exactly into English, but roughly means a:
Form, figure or configuration unified as a whole.

Focuses on the here and now


Gestalt therapy five layers of neuroses:

Phony layer- not authentic

Phobic layer- emotion pain

Impasse layer-feeling stuck, not trusting inner resources

Implosive layer- defenses are exposed

Explosive layer- pretenses and phony roles or abandoned


Gestalt techniques

Confrontation, empty chair, making rounds, top dog, and under dog.


Transactional analysis (TA)

Major figures:
Eric Berne
Thomas A. Harris

The goal is to exist the client and becoming a script free, game free, autonomous person who is capable of choosing how he or she wants to be


Transactional analysis (TA)

Asserts for life positions

I'm not OK – you're OK
I'm not OK – you're not OK
I'm OK – you're not OK
I'm OK -you're OK


Transitional analysis (TA)

Three Ego states

Behavior handed down from Parents and authority figures.

Logical, thinking, rational, deals with reality

Source of childlike


Techniques to TA model

Confrontation, questioning, explanation, interpretation, contract:
-structural analysis of the personality, TA, game analysis, script analysis


TA Karpma drama triangle


3 levels oh games:
1st degree – played in social situations
2nd degree- played in intimate circles
3 degree- usually ends in jail, hospital, or death


Script analysis (TA)

Unpleasant feeling after a person creates a game are called lifescripts .

A life script is actually a life drama or plot


Behavioral therapy: classical conditioning

Major figures:

Ivan Pavlov
Joseph Wolfe


Behavioral therapy: classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov

Conditioned response (CR)
Learned responses to a condition stimulus.
Example: a dog produce saliva

Condition stimulus (CS)
Stimulus through repeated Pairing
Example: a bell ringing for the dog to come eat

Unconditioned responses (UCR)
Doesn't require learning; unconditioned stimulus
Four example: dog produce saliva when called for food.

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Automatic condition response
Example: pair bell rang with dog eating food


Behavioral therapy Joseph wolf systematic desensitization

Maintain that all neurotic behavior is an expression of anxiety.

Subjective units of distress scale (SUDS)
- allows the client to rate threatening experiences In relation to the scale with higher ratings indicating a greater perceived threat.


Behavioral therapy operant conditioning\instrumental learning

Founded by BF Skinner who researched using rats.

Term behavior modification is based heavily on instrumental conditioning\Skinners principles, while behavior therapy emphasizes on a classical conditioning and Pavlov principles.

In operant conditioning,The behaviors increase or decrease in frequency as the result of the application of or withdrawal of rewards; this is known as reinforcement


Systematic desensitization consist of these orderly steps:

Relaxation training
Construction of anxiety hierarchy
Desensitization in imaginations
In vivo desensitization


Social learning theory behavioral therapy

Albert Badura and Richard Walters

Bo bo dolls experiment on children modeling aggression


Four types of conflict situations behavior therapy

Approach approach conflict: choosing between two desirable goals.

Approach avoidance conflict: one desirable goal and one bad goal.

Avoidance avoidance conflict: conflict around to undesirable goals

Double approach avoidance conflict: conflict involving both the approach and the avoidance of two different goals simultaneously


Neal miller
Operant conditioning behavior therapy

Was a pioneer researcher in biofeedback and learning theories.

He was The first to show the autonomic , meaning involuntary body processes can be controlled


Rational emotive Behavior therapy


Cognitive behavior

"Automatic" thoughts must be recognized and change. Founded by Albert Ellis


REBT uses th ABC's of emotional disturbances

A- activating experiences
B- belief
C- consequences
D- disputing of irrational ideas
E- New emotional consequences or effect
F- New feeling


REBT divided into three modes:

Cognitive, emotions, and behavior


REBT model

Philosophers who suggested we feel the same way we think

Describes a client who used to many should of, would, of must of in thinking.

Didactic means teaching
REBT is a didactic model of therapy


A counselor and strokes her client to read a guide to rational living by Albert Ellis in Robert harper

This is an example of a bibliography therapy

Biblbotherapy is a form of homework


Cognitive therapy

Major figures Aaron Beck and Donald Meichenbaum

BDI created the Beck Depression inventory (BDI)

Dysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad though not necessarily irrational


Stress inoculation

A cognitive therapy is most closely associated with the concept is Donald meichenbaum.

Also called self instructional therapy three stages.

Stress inculcation training (SIT)


Reality therapy

Found it by William Glasser

Choice therapy: asserts that only behavior a person can control is one's own

Addiction can be negative such as substance-abuse and work, and; therefore destructive or positive such as jogging or swimming, therefore; promotes self-confidence


Glasser formulated eight steps counseling process

Step one: good working relationships
Step two: present behavior identify
Step three: client judge her own behavior
Step four: alternative behaviors exam in and playing before action developed
Step five: commitment to action plan
Step six : no excuses except it
Step seven: had clients to commitment with no punishment
Step eight: never give up


William Glasser wrote:

Reality therapy, schools without failure and choice theory


Electric therapy or integrative therapy

Major figures
Frederick Thorne
Arnold Lazarus
Robert Carkhuff
Gordon Allport
Gerard Egan


Eclectic counselors

Attempts to choose the best theoretical approach based on the clients attributes, resources, and situation.

The word eclectic is associated with Fredrick C. Thorne


Neal Miller

Behavioral therapy

Was a pioneer a researcher in biofeedback and learning theory.

Biofeedback is a form of operant conditioning.

Elctromyogram (EMG) Is used to measure muscle tension during biofeedback training.

EEG is used to measure alpha brain waves which indicate that the client is awake but very relaxed.

EKG is used to measure the heart rate and patterns

GSR measures skin resistance to a slight electrical current when certain words or topics are brought up