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Flashcards in April 22 Deck (19)
1

How do ketone bodies generate energy during periods of prolonged starvation?

Enter the target tissue--into the mitochondria and are converted to Acetyl-CoA which generates energy

Only cells with mitochondria can utilize ketone bodies--therefore RBCs are unable to use ketone bodies

Ketone bodies are generated in the liver by breakdown of fatty acids

2

Presence of oxalate crystals in the tubular lumen is highly suggestive of...

Ethylene glycol poisoning

3

Megaloblastic anemia that occurs most often in alcoholics. Peripheral blood smear shows macrocytosis, ovalocytosis, and neutrophils with hypersegmented nuclei.

Folic acid deficiency anemia

4

Colon polyp with velvety/cauliflower-like projections?

Villous

5

What is the function of Vit E and what is seen with deficiency?

Antioxidant--protects RBCs and membranes from free radial damage

Hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination
--Ataxia and Impaired vibratory and proprioception with hemolytic anemia

6

Dimpling of the overlying breast tissue is indicative of...

Invasive breast carcinoma --involvement of the suspensory ligament

Malignant infiltration

7

Production of mutant factor V that is resistant to degradation by activated protein C is most likely to cause what complications?

Factor V Leiden--G--> A DNA point mutation near cleavage site.

Most common cause of inherited hyper coagulability
--Complications:
-DVT
-Cerebral vein thromboses
-Recurrent pregnancy loss

8

What is MOA of Buspirone, what is it used for, and what are it generalized characteristics?

Stimulate 5-HT1a receptors
Used for generalized anxiety disorder--Im always anxious if the BUS will be ON time, so I take BUSpirONe

Takes 1-2 weeks to take effect

9

What pneumoconiosis is associated with calcified hilar lymph nodes and birefringent particles on biopsy and typically affects the upper lobes?

Silicosis

10

What is the major difference btw Niemann-Pick disease and Tay-Sachs disease and what enzymes are deficient/what accumulates for each?

Niemann-Pick--> Hepatosplenomegaly
--Sphingomyelinase with accumulation of sphingomyelin

Tay-Sachs--> NO hepatosplenomegaly
--Hexosaminidase A with accumulation of GM2 ganglioside

11

Mutations in the _______ gene is the cause of maturity-onset diabetes in the young (MODY).

Glucokinase

MODY--characterized by--mild, nonprogressive hyperglycemia that often worsens with pregnancy- induced insulin resistance

12

What causes hypercalcemia with sarcoidosis?

Activated macrophages causes 1a-hydroxylase expression in the lungs and lymph nodes which causes PTH-independent production of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D
---> increased intestinal absorption of calcium

13

What bacteria use transduction for mutation?

ABCD'S

Specialized transduction

-Group A strep erythrogenic toxin
-Botulinum toxin
-Cholera toxin
-Diphtheria toxin
-Shiga toxin

14

What bacteria use transformation for mutation?

SHiN
S. pneumoniae
H. influenzae type B
Neisseria

15

How does a cardiac myxoma present?

SOB--worsens when sitting and improves when lying down
Low-pitched, mid-diastolic rumble at cardiac apex
Histo--scattered cells within a mucopolysaccharide storm

Increased IL-6 causes pt to present with weight loss and fever

Most often occurs in left atrium

16

Vitamin D deficiency causes what with respect to serum Ca, phosphorous, and PTH?

Decreased serum Ca and phosphorous because Vit D is responsible for intestinal absorption of ca and phosphate

Increased PTH due to loss of Ca

Leads to bone pain and muscle weakness in adults--osteomalacia

17

Simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses resulting in hybrid virus that has increased tropism, but the progeny from this have normal coat and doesn't have increased tropism?

Phenotypic mixing

18

What are the chemotactic agents that stimulate neutrophil migration to the site of injury?

LTB4
5-HETE--leukotriene precursor
C5a
IL-8

19

The most susceptible cells to ischemia within the brain are in what two areas?

Pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and neocortex
Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

Hippocampus is the first area damaged during global cerebral ischemia