Flashcards in April 22 Deck (19)
How do ketone bodies generate energy during periods of prolonged starvation?
Enter the target tissue--into the mitochondria and are converted to Acetyl-CoA which generates energy
Only cells with mitochondria can utilize ketone bodies--therefore RBCs are unable to use ketone bodies
Ketone bodies are generated in the liver by breakdown of fatty acids
Presence of oxalate crystals in the tubular lumen is highly suggestive of...
Ethylene glycol poisoning
Megaloblastic anemia that occurs most often in alcoholics. Peripheral blood smear shows macrocytosis, ovalocytosis, and neutrophils with hypersegmented nuclei.
Folic acid deficiency anemia
Colon polyp with velvety/cauliflower-like projections?
What is the function of Vit E and what is seen with deficiency?
Antioxidant--protects RBCs and membranes from free radial damage
Hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demyelination
--Ataxia and Impaired vibratory and proprioception with hemolytic anemia
Dimpling of the overlying breast tissue is indicative of...
Invasive breast carcinoma --involvement of the suspensory ligament
Production of mutant factor V that is resistant to degradation by activated protein C is most likely to cause what complications?
Factor V Leiden--G--> A DNA point mutation near cleavage site.
Most common cause of inherited hyper coagulability
-Cerebral vein thromboses
-Recurrent pregnancy loss
What is MOA of Buspirone, what is it used for, and what are it generalized characteristics?
Stimulate 5-HT1a receptors
Used for generalized anxiety disorder--Im always anxious if the BUS will be ON time, so I take BUSpirONe
Takes 1-2 weeks to take effect
What pneumoconiosis is associated with calcified hilar lymph nodes and birefringent particles on biopsy and typically affects the upper lobes?
What is the major difference btw Niemann-Pick disease and Tay-Sachs disease and what enzymes are deficient/what accumulates for each?
--Sphingomyelinase with accumulation of sphingomyelin
Tay-Sachs--> NO hepatosplenomegaly
--Hexosaminidase A with accumulation of GM2 ganglioside
Mutations in the _______ gene is the cause of maturity-onset diabetes in the young (MODY).
MODY--characterized by--mild, nonprogressive hyperglycemia that often worsens with pregnancy- induced insulin resistance
What causes hypercalcemia with sarcoidosis?
Activated macrophages causes 1a-hydroxylase expression in the lungs and lymph nodes which causes PTH-independent production of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D
---> increased intestinal absorption of calcium
What bacteria use transduction for mutation?
-Group A strep erythrogenic toxin
What bacteria use transformation for mutation?
H. influenzae type B
How does a cardiac myxoma present?
SOB--worsens when sitting and improves when lying down
Low-pitched, mid-diastolic rumble at cardiac apex
Histo--scattered cells within a mucopolysaccharide storm
Increased IL-6 causes pt to present with weight loss and fever
Most often occurs in left atrium
Vitamin D deficiency causes what with respect to serum Ca, phosphorous, and PTH?
Decreased serum Ca and phosphorous because Vit D is responsible for intestinal absorption of ca and phosphate
Increased PTH due to loss of Ca
Leads to bone pain and muscle weakness in adults--osteomalacia
Simultaneous infection of a cell with 2 viruses resulting in hybrid virus that has increased tropism, but the progeny from this have normal coat and doesn't have increased tropism?
What are the chemotactic agents that stimulate neutrophil migration to the site of injury?