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Flashcards in April 12 Deck (55)
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1

What is associated with polyhydramnios?

Impaired fetal swallowing
-Esophageal/duodenal atresia
-Anencephaly

Increased fetal urination
-High fetal cardiac output

2

What is the purpose of administering H. influenzae serotype B--Hib vaccine that is conjugated to a carrier protein?

Protein conjugation causes a T-cell mediated immune response leading to long term immunity through production of B-lymphocytes

3

How is bioavailability of an oral drug calculated?

(AUC oral x IV dose) / (AUC x oral dose)

4

Damage to the sub thalamic nucleus, most often by lacunar strokes, will cause what symptoms?

Contralateral hemiballism
--due to decreased excitation of the globus pallidus --reducing inhibition of the thalamus

5

What drains into the superficial inguinal lymph nodes?

Anal canal--below pectinate line
Skin below umbilicus
Scrotum
Vulva

6

Elevated level of ______ confirms diagnosis of menopause.

FSH
--loss of negative feedback on FAH due to decreased estrogen

7

Order of cardiac tissue conduction velocity?

Purkinje system
Atrial muscle
Ventricular muscle
AV node

"Park AT VENTure AVenue

8

tRNA is a small noncoding form of RNA that contains chemically modified bases--dihydrouridine, ribothymidine, pseudouridine--tRNA has a ____ sequence at the 3' OH end that is used as a recognition sequence by______.

CCA
Proteins

--Serves as the amino acid binding site

9

persistent feelings of detachment or estrangement from one's own body, thoughts, perceptions, and actions or one's environment?

Depersonalization/derealization disorder

10

What systemic mycoses is associated with granulomatous inflammation?

Blastomycosis

11

What is the treatment for Acute intermittent porphyria and what does this affect?

Glucose and heme--which inhibit ALA synthase
--reduces the toxic metabolites--d-ALA and porphobilinogen

12

The presence of what maker in hepB infection greatly increases the chances of vertical transmission of the virus from mother to fetus?

HBeAg
--Good indicator of high infectivity

13

What is the MOA of tetrodotoxin and what is its source?

Binds fast voltage-gated Na+ channels in cardiac and nerve tissue--preventing depolarization

Source--pufferfish

Sym: Nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, weakness, dizziness, loss of reflexes

14

Aplastic anemia is characterized by what triad and what is increased with this disorder?

Decreased Hb
Thrombocytopenia
Absent hematopoietic cells in bone marrow--fatty infiltration--dry bone marrow tap

Increased EPO production by the kidneys

15

Characterized by agencies of cerebellar vermis with cystic enlargement of the 4th ventricle and is associated with noncommunicating hydrocephalus and spina bifida?

Dandy-walker syndrome

16

What defect is often seen in xeroderma pigmentosum?

Nucleotide excision repair defect--UV specific endonuclease---which is responsible for recognizing the thymine dimer and excising the DNA with these defects

17

Newborn with anion-gap metabolic acidosis, ketosis and hypoglycemia along with increased propionic acid is most likely to have a defect in what enzyme?

Propionyl CoA carboxylase
--responsible for conversion of propionyl-CoA to methylmalonyl-CoA
--Involved in the metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids, branched-chanin amino acids, methionine, and threonine

18

What polymerase is found in prokaryotic cells only and has 5'-3' exonuclease activity?

DNA polymerase I
--Removes RNA primer created by RNA primes and repair damaged DNA sequences

19

What type of channel is the CFTR channel involved in CF?

ATP-gated Cl- channel that secretes Cl- in lungs and GI tract, and reabsorbs Cl- in sweat glands

20

What is the inheritance pattern of PKU, which presents with intellectual disability, gait or postural abnormality, eczema, and musty body odor?

Autosomal recessive

21

Damage to the lateral geniculate nucleus will cause impairment of what?

Ipsilateral eye

22

Collections of squamous cell debris that form a round, pearly mass behind the tympanic membrane in the inner ear?

Cholesteatoma--can lead to conductive hearing loss by eroding ossicles, mastoid air cells

23

A lesion to what part of the thalamus can lead to hyperphagia and obesity?

Ventromedial nucleus--controls satiety and monitors blood sugar levels

24

What is seen with primary hyperaldosteronism?

Increased aldosterone
Decreased renin
HTN
Hypernatremia
Hypokalemia
Metabolic alkalosis--increased HCO3-

25

Desmopressin can be used for the tx of hemophilia A--what does it do?

Increases the amount of circulating factor VIII

26

Complete or partial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase will cause what and how will it present?

Organic acidemia--presents in newborn as lethargy, vomiting, and tachypnea ----increased methylmoalonic acid and propionic acid

Ketotic hypoglycemia
Hypoammonemia
metabolic acidosis

27

What is pituitary apoplexy and how does it present?

Sudden hemorrhage of pituitary gland--often in the presence of an existing pituitary adenoma

Sudden onset severe headache, visual impairment--bitemporal hemianopia, and features of hypopituitarism

28

What embryonic structure gives rise to the superior vena cava?

Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein

29

Intravascular hemolytic anemia is characterized by...

Schistocytes
Decreased serum haptoglobin
Increased LDH and bilirubin

30

What is the DOC for absence seizures?

Ethosuximide--sucks to have silent (absence) seizures

Also can use valproic acid