April 24 Flashcards Preview

1 UWorld > April 24 > Flashcards

Flashcards in April 24 Deck (17)
1

What is the #1 predisposing factor for the development of bacterial endocarditis?

Mitral valve prolapse

2

Anterior compartment syndrome can cause damage to what structures?

Foot extensor muscles
Anterior tibial artery
Deep peroneal (fibular) nerve--caused decreased sensation between the first and second toes, decreased dorsiflexion of the foot, foot drop, claw foot

3

Measure urine _____ concentration can help determine the cause of metabolic alkalosis?

Chloride

4

What is the role of IL-2?

Simulates growth of helper, cytotoxic, and regulatory T cells, and NK cells

5

Bone specific alkaline phosphatase reflects activity of what?

Osteoblastic activity

6

Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, urinary hydroxyproline and urinary deoxypyridinoline reflect activity of what and which is the most reliable of the 3?

Osteoclastic activity

Urinary deoxypryridinoline most reliable

7

1st line treatment for bipolar include what meds?

Lithium
Valproate
2nd gen antipsychotic-- Quetiapine

8

What type of receptors contain a zinc finger motif --which is composed of zinc in the center of cysteine and histidine residues?

Intracellular receptors
-Steroids--Estrogen, aldosterone, cortisol
-Thyroid hormones
-Fat-souble vitamins-- D, A, K, E

9

What cranial nerve is affected when pt is unable to go down stairs due to vertical diplopia?

CN IV (trochlear) --superior oblique

--eye moves upward

10

What cranial nerve is affected when pt presents with medially directed eye that cannot abduct?

CN VI--(abducens)--lateral rectus

11

ETOH inhibits _____ and can cause hypoglycemia once hepatic glycogen stores are depleted?

Gluconeogenesis

12

What lipid lowering agent can cause a gout flareup?

Niacin--due to its ability to decrease uric acid excretion into the urine

13

What stain is used to Dx Tropheryma whipplei (Whipple disease) and what is absorbing the stain?

Periodic acid-Schiff stain--stains the glycogen --> glycoprotein present in the cell wall
--Foamy macrophages in intestinal lamina propria--turn magenta with PAS

14

What is the bluish stain within reticulocytes due to increased bone marrow turnover --accelerated release of immature RBCs (erythrocytes)?

Residual ribosome RNA

15

What is the most common cause of hereditary hemochromatosis?

Missense mutation in the HFE gene--resulting in excessive intestinal iron absorption and organ damage due to iron accumulation with parenchymal tissues

16

What are the functions of each of the rotator cuff muscles?

SITS

Supraspinatus--controls abduction
Infraspinatus--controls external rotation
Teres minor--helps with external rotation and adduction
Subscapularis--helps with internal rotation and adduction

17

What is indicated by an increase in gastrin release by injection of secretin?

ZES--gastrinoma

Normally secretin inhibits gastrin release from gastric G-cells and stimulates HCO3- release when acid is present

with ZES--secretin stimulates the release of Gastrin from the gastrinoma