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Flashcards in April 28 Deck (16)
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Lesion to what nerve results in loss of gag reflex, loss of general sensation in the upper pharynx, posterior tongue, tonsils, and middle ear; and loss of taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal IX


What type of lung cancer shows growth along intact alveolar septa without vascular or stromal invasion?

Adenocarcinoma in situ--located at the periphery
--columnar mucin-secreting cells


What type of gastric cancer shows signet ring cells?

Diffuse gastric cancer--mucin-filled cells with peripheral nuclei--infiltrate into the stomach wall


What are the characteristics of Klinefelters?

Primary hypogonadism
--Elevated FSH and LH
--Decreased testosterone

Long lower extremities
Small, firm testes


What malignant ovarian neoplasm causes hirsutism and clitoromegaly?

Steroli-Leydig --stroma (sex cord) tumor
--Increased androgen production


Adding Carbidopa to levodopa can cause what adverse side effects?

Increases central side effects due to increasing DA in the brain--anxiety and agitation, insomnia, hallucinations

Will help with peripheral side effects--because it decreases conversion


What is the screening test for fecal fat?

Sudan III stain


What are the changes called that occur within the body of a neuron after the axon has been severed?

Axonal reaction --reflect an increase in protein synthesis that facilitates axon repair

Enlarged, rounded cells with peripherally located nuclei and dispersed finely granular Nissl substance


What can be safely supplemented in a pt with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency?

Lysine and leucine--they are strictly ketogenic and will not increase the lactate levels

Pyruvate dehydrogenase normally converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, but when it is deficient then it is converted to lactate, which can cause metabolic acidosis


Where is the lowest osmolarity within the nephron?

distal convoluted tubule


What is seen with sickle cell trait with respect to HbA and HbS?

HbA is present in a greater amount


What nerve is at risk during thyroidectomy and what does this nerve innervate?

External branch of the Superior laryngeal nerve --due to proximity to superior thyroid artery and vein

Nerve innervates the cricothyroid muscle --hoarse voice

Only muscle in the throat innervated by its self and associated with nerve injured during ligation of thyroid artery


Communicating hydrocephalus is caused by decreased reabsorption by what?

Arachnoid granulations--seen with arachnid scarring post--meningitis


Pt projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto physician?


--Psychiatrist is seen as parent


What is the classic triad of symptoms seen with Henoch-Schonlein purpura?

Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs
Abdominal pain

Vasculitis secondary to IgA immune complex deposition and is associated with IgA nephropathy

Most often follows URI


What is increased in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and what should be avoided?

Ammonia--avoid protein