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Flashcards in April 4 Deck (49)
1

What abx allow bacterial cells to be susceptible to osmotic stress causing them to burst?

B-lactam abx--penicillins, cephalosporins and vanco

2

What statistical test is used to determine whether there are any significant differences btw the means of 3 or more independent groups?

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

3

What is the cause of the disease that presents with intellectual disability, post-pubertal macroorchidism, long face with a large jaw, large everted ears, autism, mitral valve prolapse and often hyper laxity of the joints in the hand?

Fragile X syndrome--due to loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene on long arm of CH. X

4

Postop hypoparathyroidism with resultant hypocalcemia should be treated with what?

Oral Ca and Vit D --calcitriol-- 1,25 D3

5

What is released from Sertoli cells that cause inhibition of FSH?

Inhibin B--which is negative feedback causing inhibitor of FSH

6

1 gram of protein yields ___ Cal of energy?

4

Carbs are the same and 9 Cal of energy per gram of fat

7

Long term glucocorticoid therapy causes an increase in what within the liver?

Gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis --contributes to hyperglycemia

8

Second generation antipychotics (atypical) have an increased risk of what and what should be monitored?

-pines--especially olanzapine and clozapine=increased risk of metabolic syndrome--weight gain, DM, hyperlipidemia

Monitor-lipid panal and glucose

9

What type of selection occur in the thymus that involves TCRs that bind with high affinity self antigen or self MHC class i or ii?

Negative selection--these cells that bind tightly are eliminated by apoptosis

Occurs in the medulla

Positive selection occurs 1st in the cortex

10

What translocation is present in 90% of follicular lymphomas and what does this cause?

t(14;18)---causes overexpresion of Bcl2--which inhibits apoptosis

11

Abnormal spasm or diminished relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscles during swallowing (cricopharyngeal motor dysfunction) causes what?

Zenker diverticulum --pharyngoespohageal false diverticulum

12

What is seen with acute hepatotoxicity from inhaled anesthetics?

Elevated serum aminotransferase levels--due to massive hepatocellular injury
Prolonged PT--due to failure of hepatic synthetic function --deficiency of factor VII
Leukocytosis
Eosinophilia

13

What are the findings seen with congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)?

Pot-pellied
Pale
Puffy-faced child with Protruding umbilicus
Protuberant tongue
Poor brain development

The 6 P's

14

What is the 1st line treatment for arsenic poisoning which presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, severe watery diarrhea, delirium, and hypotension from dehydration--garlic odor can also be noted on pts breath?

Dimercaprol

15

Vitamin C is necessary for the hydroxylation of ____ and ____.

Proline and lysine in pro-collagen

16

Pt with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) with have inflammation of what tendons, which can affect what muscles responsible for wrist extension?

Swollen extensor tendon--extensor carpi radialis brevis

17

What type of anemia results from B-thalassemia?

Microcytic, hypochromic anemia

18

What type of HSR is contact dermatitis?

Type IV HSR ---mediated by T lymphocytes

19

Tissue damage and abscess formation is caused by what type of cells?

Macrophages and neutrophils--lysosomal enzyme release

20

What is inhibited with lead poisoning causing inhibition of heme synthesis?

d-ALA dehydratase

21

What is the purpose of a southwestern blot?

Identifies DNA-binding proteins--transcription factors, nucleases, histone--using labeled oligonucleotide probes

22

Bilateral wedge-shaped strips of necrosis seen in the cerebral convexity are indicative of what?

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

23

What enzyme is deficient in Niemann-Pick disease and how does it present?

Sphingomyelinase--buildup of sphingomyelin

AR disease that presents with progressive neurodegneration, heptosplenomegaly, foam cells (lipid-laden macrophages), and cherry-red spot on macula

24

When is pulmonary vascular resistance lowest?

At functional residual capacity --which is end of normal expiration

25

Fracture of the left 12th rib is most likely to damage what organ?

Left kidney

26

What is defective in Xeroderma pigmentosum?

Nucleotide excision repair--prevents repair of pyrimidine dimers because of UV light exposure

Pyrimidine dimers are formed in DNA as a result of UV exposure ---these cannot be fixed by nucleotide excision repair in pt with XP

27

What is produced by the placenta to maintain a PDA?

Prostaglandin E2 --indomethacin can be given to close--PGE2 inhibitor

28

What stains can be used to stain for Cryptococcus neoformans?

India ink stain
Mucicarmine stain

29

What 2 things can decrease the concentration of stone forming ingredients (Ca, phosphate, oxalate salts)?

High fluid intake
High urine citrate concentration--binds free Ca (ionized)--preventing precipitation and facilitating its excretion

Potassium citrate can be prescribed to prevent stone formation

30

What diuretic can cause hypercalcemia and which one can cause renal stones?

Thiazides--hypercalcemia--decrease excretion of Ca

Loops--increased excretion of Ca--stones

31

Diseases caused by 'exotoxin' release by S. aureus--

Toxic shock syndrome
Staph scalded syndrome
gastroenteritis

32

What is the DOC for bulimia nervosa?

SSRI--Fluoxetine

33

Why is hypokalemia seen with loops and thiazides?

Increased renin and aldosterone--increased K+ secretion
--can cause EKG changes and muscle pain

34

What are the common associations with psoriasis?

Psoriatic arthritis
Nail pitting
Uveitis

35

What are the most characteristic signs of marijuana intoxication?

Conjunctival injection
tachycardia
increased appetite
dry mouth

36

Widening the pressure-volume loop to the left results in...

Increased contractility
--increased SV
--increased EF
--Decreased ESV

37

Widening the pressure-volume loop to the right results in...

Increased preload
--increased SV

38

Narrowing the pressure-volume loop and increasing LV pressure results in?

Increased after load
--increased aortic pressure
--decreased stroke volume
--increased ESV

39

What are the causes of Vit A deficiency and how does it present?

Biliary obstruction
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
Small bowel resection

Night blindness
Dry, scaly skin
Corneal degeneration

40

What does Metyrapone stimulation test block and what does it cause if pt has intact hypothalamic-pituitary axis?

Blocks last step of cortisol synthesis (11-deoxycortisol-->cortisol)

Decreased cortisol will increase ACTH, 11-deoxycortisol and urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels


Primary adrenal insufficiency--increased ACTH but decreased 11-deoxycortisol

secondary/tertiary --Both ACTH and 11-deoxycortisol remain decreased after test --Pituitary/hypothalamic disease

41

Pulmonary-capillary wedge pressure is an indirect measure of what?

Left atrial pressure

42

What are the common inducers of CYP-450?

Phenytoin
Phenobarbital
Rifampin
Griseofulvin
Carbamazepine

43

What are the common inhibitors of CYP-450?

Ritonavir
Cimetidine
Ciprofloxacin
-Azoles
Isoniazid
Grapefruit juice
Macrolides--except azithromycin

44

What makes up the hindgut and what artery supplies it?

Distal 1/3 of transverse colon to upper portion of rectum

Supplied by IMA

45

What cells cause fatty streaks in the aorta that can be seen as early as the second decade?

Macrophages--foams cells in the intima that can eventually progress to atherosclerotic plaques

46

Isoproterenol has what effects?

B1=B2

Causing increased contractility and decreased vascular resistance by smooth muscle relaxation (B2)

Increased CO, HR, PP
Decreased MAP

47

"Red neurons" characterized by intense eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm + Nissl substance disappears indicates damage that occur when?

within the last 12-24hrs

48

There are fast and slow _______ for liver metabolism of drugs?

Acetylators

49

In males, incomplete closure of the urethral (urogenital) folds results in?

Hypospadias--abnormal opening of the urethra proximal to the glans on the ventral surface