Flashcards in April 4 Deck (49)
What abx allow bacterial cells to be susceptible to osmotic stress causing them to burst?
B-lactam abx--penicillins, cephalosporins and vanco
What statistical test is used to determine whether there are any significant differences btw the means of 3 or more independent groups?
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
What is the cause of the disease that presents with intellectual disability, post-pubertal macroorchidism, long face with a large jaw, large everted ears, autism, mitral valve prolapse and often hyper laxity of the joints in the hand?
Fragile X syndrome--due to loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene on long arm of CH. X
Postop hypoparathyroidism with resultant hypocalcemia should be treated with what?
Oral Ca and Vit D --calcitriol-- 1,25 D3
What is released from Sertoli cells that cause inhibition of FSH?
Inhibin B--which is negative feedback causing inhibitor of FSH
1 gram of protein yields ___ Cal of energy?
Carbs are the same and 9 Cal of energy per gram of fat
Long term glucocorticoid therapy causes an increase in what within the liver?
Gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis --contributes to hyperglycemia
Second generation antipychotics (atypical) have an increased risk of what and what should be monitored?
-pines--especially olanzapine and clozapine=increased risk of metabolic syndrome--weight gain, DM, hyperlipidemia
Monitor-lipid panal and glucose
What type of selection occur in the thymus that involves TCRs that bind with high affinity self antigen or self MHC class i or ii?
Negative selection--these cells that bind tightly are eliminated by apoptosis
Occurs in the medulla
Positive selection occurs 1st in the cortex
What translocation is present in 90% of follicular lymphomas and what does this cause?
t(14;18)---causes overexpresion of Bcl2--which inhibits apoptosis
Abnormal spasm or diminished relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscles during swallowing (cricopharyngeal motor dysfunction) causes what?
Zenker diverticulum --pharyngoespohageal false diverticulum
What is seen with acute hepatotoxicity from inhaled anesthetics?
Elevated serum aminotransferase levels--due to massive hepatocellular injury
Prolonged PT--due to failure of hepatic synthetic function --deficiency of factor VII
What are the findings seen with congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)?
Puffy-faced child with Protruding umbilicus
Poor brain development
The 6 P's
What is the 1st line treatment for arsenic poisoning which presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, severe watery diarrhea, delirium, and hypotension from dehydration--garlic odor can also be noted on pts breath?
Vitamin C is necessary for the hydroxylation of ____ and ____.
Proline and lysine in pro-collagen
Pt with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) with have inflammation of what tendons, which can affect what muscles responsible for wrist extension?
Swollen extensor tendon--extensor carpi radialis brevis
What type of anemia results from B-thalassemia?
Microcytic, hypochromic anemia
What type of HSR is contact dermatitis?
Type IV HSR ---mediated by T lymphocytes
Tissue damage and abscess formation is caused by what type of cells?
Macrophages and neutrophils--lysosomal enzyme release
What is inhibited with lead poisoning causing inhibition of heme synthesis?
What is the purpose of a southwestern blot?
Identifies DNA-binding proteins--transcription factors, nucleases, histone--using labeled oligonucleotide probes
Bilateral wedge-shaped strips of necrosis seen in the cerebral convexity are indicative of what?
What enzyme is deficient in Niemann-Pick disease and how does it present?
Sphingomyelinase--buildup of sphingomyelin
AR disease that presents with progressive neurodegneration, heptosplenomegaly, foam cells (lipid-laden macrophages), and cherry-red spot on macula
When is pulmonary vascular resistance lowest?
At functional residual capacity --which is end of normal expiration
Fracture of the left 12th rib is most likely to damage what organ?
What is defective in Xeroderma pigmentosum?
Nucleotide excision repair--prevents repair of pyrimidine dimers because of UV light exposure
Pyrimidine dimers are formed in DNA as a result of UV exposure ---these cannot be fixed by nucleotide excision repair in pt with XP
What is produced by the placenta to maintain a PDA?
Prostaglandin E2 --indomethacin can be given to close--PGE2 inhibitor
What stains can be used to stain for Cryptococcus neoformans?
India ink stain
What 2 things can decrease the concentration of stone forming ingredients (Ca, phosphate, oxalate salts)?
High fluid intake
High urine citrate concentration--binds free Ca (ionized)--preventing precipitation and facilitating its excretion
Potassium citrate can be prescribed to prevent stone formation