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Flashcards in April 4 Deck (49)
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What abx allow bacterial cells to be susceptible to osmotic stress causing them to burst?

B-lactam abx--penicillins, cephalosporins and vanco


What statistical test is used to determine whether there are any significant differences btw the means of 3 or more independent groups?

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)


What is the cause of the disease that presents with intellectual disability, post-pubertal macroorchidism, long face with a large jaw, large everted ears, autism, mitral valve prolapse and often hyper laxity of the joints in the hand?

Fragile X syndrome--due to loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene on long arm of CH. X


Postop hypoparathyroidism with resultant hypocalcemia should be treated with what?

Oral Ca and Vit D --calcitriol-- 1,25 D3


What is released from Sertoli cells that cause inhibition of FSH?

Inhibin B--which is negative feedback causing inhibitor of FSH


1 gram of protein yields ___ Cal of energy?


Carbs are the same and 9 Cal of energy per gram of fat


Long term glucocorticoid therapy causes an increase in what within the liver?

Gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis --contributes to hyperglycemia


Second generation antipychotics (atypical) have an increased risk of what and what should be monitored?

-pines--especially olanzapine and clozapine=increased risk of metabolic syndrome--weight gain, DM, hyperlipidemia

Monitor-lipid panal and glucose


What type of selection occur in the thymus that involves TCRs that bind with high affinity self antigen or self MHC class i or ii?

Negative selection--these cells that bind tightly are eliminated by apoptosis

Occurs in the medulla

Positive selection occurs 1st in the cortex


What translocation is present in 90% of follicular lymphomas and what does this cause?

t(14;18)---causes overexpresion of Bcl2--which inhibits apoptosis


Abnormal spasm or diminished relaxation of the cricopharyngeal muscles during swallowing (cricopharyngeal motor dysfunction) causes what?

Zenker diverticulum --pharyngoespohageal false diverticulum


What is seen with acute hepatotoxicity from inhaled anesthetics?

Elevated serum aminotransferase levels--due to massive hepatocellular injury
Prolonged PT--due to failure of hepatic synthetic function --deficiency of factor VII


What are the findings seen with congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)?

Puffy-faced child with Protruding umbilicus
Protuberant tongue
Poor brain development

The 6 P's


What is the 1st line treatment for arsenic poisoning which presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, severe watery diarrhea, delirium, and hypotension from dehydration--garlic odor can also be noted on pts breath?



Vitamin C is necessary for the hydroxylation of ____ and ____.

Proline and lysine in pro-collagen


Pt with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) with have inflammation of what tendons, which can affect what muscles responsible for wrist extension?

Swollen extensor tendon--extensor carpi radialis brevis


What type of anemia results from B-thalassemia?

Microcytic, hypochromic anemia


What type of HSR is contact dermatitis?

Type IV HSR ---mediated by T lymphocytes


Tissue damage and abscess formation is caused by what type of cells?

Macrophages and neutrophils--lysosomal enzyme release


What is inhibited with lead poisoning causing inhibition of heme synthesis?

d-ALA dehydratase


What is the purpose of a southwestern blot?

Identifies DNA-binding proteins--transcription factors, nucleases, histone--using labeled oligonucleotide probes


Bilateral wedge-shaped strips of necrosis seen in the cerebral convexity are indicative of what?

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy


What enzyme is deficient in Niemann-Pick disease and how does it present?

Sphingomyelinase--buildup of sphingomyelin

AR disease that presents with progressive neurodegneration, heptosplenomegaly, foam cells (lipid-laden macrophages), and cherry-red spot on macula


When is pulmonary vascular resistance lowest?

At functional residual capacity --which is end of normal expiration


Fracture of the left 12th rib is most likely to damage what organ?

Left kidney


What is defective in Xeroderma pigmentosum?

Nucleotide excision repair--prevents repair of pyrimidine dimers because of UV light exposure

Pyrimidine dimers are formed in DNA as a result of UV exposure ---these cannot be fixed by nucleotide excision repair in pt with XP


What is produced by the placenta to maintain a PDA?

Prostaglandin E2 --indomethacin can be given to close--PGE2 inhibitor


What stains can be used to stain for Cryptococcus neoformans?

India ink stain
Mucicarmine stain


What 2 things can decrease the concentration of stone forming ingredients (Ca, phosphate, oxalate salts)?

High fluid intake
High urine citrate concentration--binds free Ca (ionized)--preventing precipitation and facilitating its excretion

Potassium citrate can be prescribed to prevent stone formation


What diuretic can cause hypercalcemia and which one can cause renal stones?

Thiazides--hypercalcemia--decrease excretion of Ca

Loops--increased excretion of Ca--stones