apush 1945-1969 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in apush 1945-1969 Deck (170):
1

postwar:
end of colonization

many soldiers returned.
congress: repub
milit spending during CW finance migration n changes

repub control legis/ conserv

2

GIbill

edu n money/loan from gov to vet

3

suburban

spending during CW finance migration n changes

4

levittown

project of increase in mass produce, low priced family home on NY. ! interest n rates on mortage.

5

sunbelt

offers warmth n ! tax n econ support

6

employment act of 1946

health insurance, ^minwage, full employment. createdcouncil of econ advisor help gov promote econ welfare

7

opa

relaxed control by sdemo n repubb leads to ^ inflation rate

8

strikes n union

workers wannted ^wage leads to strike railroad n mine.

truman tough response seize mine and soldier.

united mine workers cancelled strike

9

truman

demo, continue ND, full employment n civil rights for aa

10

civil rights measure by truman

end discrimination, establish committee on civil rights 1946 n strengthened civil rights division of Justice Department (help end segreg in school).

tried to end seg in gov n military, south against this

11

fair employment practice commision

trumen, prevent employrs from discriminating in hiring aa. sdemo blocked it

12

22th admend

2 term presidency

13

taft hartley act

probusiness ended close shop, anti union. ended boycott

14

election of 1848

truman is unpopular.

liberal dem- progressive bc agressive foreign policy threatening world peace

sdemo: States right party/dixiecrat bc civil right

15

fair deal

truman
healthcare, fed aid to edu, civil rights legislation, fund for public build n new farm program. conserv block

allowed: ^ min wage n extended sss

16

why fair deal defeated

truman political conflict w/congress

cold war

17

yalta

free election

su help against japan last minute

18

potsdam

j surrender unconditionally

nazi trails (Nuremberg)
SU joined

19

world bank

by bretton wood conference fund rebuilding after wartorn stuff
su declined

20

UN security council

maintain and peacekepp mison. 5 perm sets n veto power there.

21

atomic energy commision

part un, approve by su

22

baruch plan

reject by SU, regu nuclear energy n eliminate atomic bombs.

23

soviet satellite states

eeu ditator loyal to SU. SU influenced free election. protection against future atack

24

german occupation zone

east: german demo repub

west: econ recov. su want ppl out of berlin

25

iron curtain

speech by churchhill caled for demo to stop communism

26

truman advisors

decides how to contain soviet agression

marshall
acheson
kennan

27

kennan article

containment of russian expansion, would/might lead to stopping communist world denom n lead to peace

28

walter lippmann

"cold war" argues that containment should be/only needed in some places

29

truman doctrine

money send to greece n turkey so they;; stay demo

bc
soviet deman for controll of dardanelles/turkey n commun uprising against greece gov

30

the marshall plan
EU recovery program

us send econ aid EU (Post war: EU in ruins= increase chance in communism) to help econ n demo gov. effective.
SU refused the aid

$17mil

31

divided germany created afte rberlin airlift

west: fed repub germany

east: german demo repub

32

nato--warsaw pack

broke washington fairwel address. military defense/alliance. eisenhower: commander

10

33

national secrurity act 1947

centralized department of defense coordinate militray operation

NSC coordinate foerign policy

CIA

selective service system n peacetime draft

34

NSC 68

how to fight cold war

- ^ us gov defense spedning 20% of GNP

- form alliance w/ noncommunist

- convince us ppl to agree with this

35

asia

resist us influece after imperialism

pacific n philipine: american troops occcupied

36

japan

under us/mcarthur control.

generals trial n killied.

new constitution w/emporer

limited milit

no claim to korea n island

37

china

before: chiang (natinalit)
defeated by popular, organized mao n fleed to taiwan. us tried to help

38

sino-soviet pact

mao n stalim

39

korean
police action not war

japan n soviet n us troops left

nk attack. un attack back to chinese border (MacArthur). china drove un back to 38

40

macarthur

japan
korean war

fired bc wanted war against china. truman said no

41

soft on communism

criticism on trumen n demo. repub wanted to fight china

42

loyalty review board

investigate background of federal employees. many resigned /fired

43

smith act

illiegal to teach overthrow of gov by force/ join a antigov organization

44

mccarran internal security act 1950

-unlawful to support totalitarian government

-restrict employment n travel of ppl joinging communist organ

-authorized creation camps

45

HUAC

find coomunist in gov official, boyscott, hollywood (testify in committee

46

hollywood

if they refused to testify then blacklist from industry

47

hiss case

nixon case has chamber as communist witness against hiss (official of state department, help yalta) accused of being commun.
prison

48

rosenberg case

founf guiltu of giving info on bombs to SU, killed.

49

mccarthy

said that communist still in us. power came from fear of unsupported accusation.anti trumen n demo. attacked weathy supported by working class

50

mccarthyism

communist witchhunt

51

end of mccarthy

seen as cruel bully on tv during hearing about commun in army

52

eisenhower 50s repub. 2 terms
more focus on foerign policy rather than domestic

truman left "a mess in washington" (scandals). election 1952 against taft. chose nixon as vice presid

ike was not a politician unlike nixon.

promised to end war in korea

delegation of authority. admistration: businesslike

korean armistance: 38th parallel in the end

53

i like ike

repub slogan for eisenhower. supported by mid class

54

richard nixon

used campaign fund for own prson use n was almost dropped from election. saved himself by checkers speech: pathos, wifedauhterdog there.

55

modern republicanism (bland leading the bland)

cared about budget. moderate on domestic issue,

accept ND n extended some. sss n minwage n pubhous.

created HEW (depart health,edu, welfare) under Hobby: 1st repub cabinet

soilbank program: ! farm produc, ^ income

no fed health insurance n fed aid to edu

highway act: ^construction linking majcities. denfense. created jobs n ^suburb growth. bd for railroad, public trnaport n envir

56

1950 prosperity

low inflation rate. sucess econ policy. disposable income triples. postwar: highest standard of living in the world

57

dulles. 2nd term: demo control congress

hated truman's way. challenge SU n China. liberating EEU nations under soviet n encourage taiwan vs comunist china. supported by conservatives. if us pushed to war, commun would back down cuz us has nukes. prevented by ike

58

brinkmanship/massive retaliation

greater reliance on nukes n air power less on conventional force. dave money. turned ino policy for mutual extinction (MAD). did not prevent smaller wars n norm fighting still used for those

59

iran

ike:^ in covert actions used in foeirgn policy, less expensive/objectionable.

CIA helped overthrow Iranian gov bc threat to US's rights to the oil. the return of shah/monarch provided fav oil$ n purchases of US arms

60

latin america

CIA ovethrow gov that threatened us busi interest. cia operation ^ anti-american feeling n damaged relations w/ iran

61

geneva conference 1954

french: controlled IndoCHina, J took during WW2 n tried to take it back but viet n cambod resist. ^ support of national n communi leader Minh. Truman gave aid to F. SU n China aid Viet Minh ( lead by Hochi). french surrender at dienbienphu. ike didn't help.

conferance: french agree to give up indochina. divided up to cmabod, laos, viet (was to b divided at 17th parallel temproaily until election)

S: Ngo Dinh DIem cathlic, urban, fled from north commun. no general election to unit bc S fear of Nvicotry

62

domino theory

if SViet fell under commun, another nation inSE asia would fall then oceania

63

SEATO

dulles: regional defense pact, agree to defend one another in case of attack.

allies, main oceania, philip, thai, pakis

64

suez crisis

US support isreal n friendly nations in ME

65

eisenhower doctrine

Nasser (Egypt) asked US to fund Aswan Dam, Us said nom then asked SU n they said yes. but needed more funds to Nasser seized Suez canal. Brit, France n (Isreal) attacked n took it back. Ike didn't like it n told the UN so forces withdrew

66

spirit of geneva.
cold war thaw

after stalin died, both us (atoms for peace) n su wanted to slow the arms race. SU had good relations w. noncommun countries. Ike n SU bulganin meet. US proposed open skies (aerial photography of opposing nation to eliminate suprise nuke attack. soviet said no. SU leader Khrushchev wanted peace w/ West

67

hungarian revolt

gov (backed by SU) overthorwn. SU send tanks to crush those wanting hungary out of warsaw pact. US didn't do anything bc fear of big war. gave su official sphere of influence in EEU. ended CW thaw

68

sputnik

SU lanched first 2 satellites orbiting earth n had better rocket designs. us schools criticsed for matnsci.
^ fear of nuke war

69

NDEA

response to sputnik by congress. the act authorized sending money to school for math, sci, n foreign lang.
congress also created NASA

70

second berlin crisis

gave west 6 months to pull troop out of west berlin before turning city of east germans. US refused to accept. ike invited SU leader to visit US n both agree to putt of crisis

71

u-2 incident

2 week before planned paris meeting btw US n SU, russian shot down US spy plane (U-2), expose us tatic for getting info- SU's missle program. ike admitted it after exposed. SU leader walked out of paris meeting n ended thaw

72

fidel castro 1959

overthrew cuban dicttor Batista. nationalized us busi n properties. Ike cut of trade. Castro turned to SU for support n set up a toalotarian commun state. CIA train anti commun in cuba to retake their land n did not make decision to take action

73

military-industrial complex

farewel address, warned of - impact of CW on US. warned country to not turning into a military/imperial state

74

ike doctrine

us pledge econ n milit aid to ME threatened by commun

75

OPEC

arabs bation formed it concerning exporting petroleum exports

76

jackie robinson

baseball player, first aa to play in major league team since 1880

77

truman's integration policies

integrated the arm forces in 1948 n intro civil rights legislation in congress.

aa in south still legally segregated/
aa is poorly edu n poor.
civil rights began: saa moved from rural to urban
naa joined demo during ND

78

cold war influence

on civil rights/social attitude. US represented freedom n demo, therefor racism n discim needed to b corrected

79

brown v board of edu of topeka

naacp overpower plessy v ferguson allow segregation.

naacp 50 thurgood marshalla argued segreg aa in pubschool was unconstit bc 14th admend (equal protect by law). SCourt agrees.
Justice warren: separate facilities wrong n no more school segreg

reaction from South: some congress signed southern manifest condemming SC abusing powers. state close schools n set up private. kkk violence.

80

orval faubus

56, governor used national guard to prevent aa students from enetering HS, ike intervene by using troop to protect aa.action from South: some congress signed southern manifest

only a small % of aa went to integ school

81

montgomery bus boycott

rose didn't gice up east fpr a whote passenger. arrested for violation of segreg law. MLF leader of aa boycott, nonviolent. scourt ruled segreg law uncon

82

MLK and the SCLC

mlk got ministry n churches in south to get involved in civil rights

83

operation wetback

forced 3.8 mill to return to mexico. remaining were discrim n exploitation

no more ban on asian immigrants.

84

impact of tv

became center of family, bland network

85

consumerism

agressive adv= name brand, suburb shopping, credit card, chain fast food on roads, standardize product.

86

rock n roll= teen

mass market n inexensive music, elvis presley

^ reading, start of paperback.

87

the organization man by whyte on loss of individ

^ conglomerates: one business makes diff things. more white collar than blue collar jobs. working for magazine=sucess. corporate promote teamwork n conserv conformity.

88

Galbraith: wealthy us don't care about addressing the need for ^ social spending for the common good

Riesman comments that conformitty being a big deal

89

novels

wrote about individ's struggle against conformity
catch 22
catcher in the rye

90

beatniks 60

rebellious writers n intellectual, leader: Kerouac n Ginsberg.
spontaneity, drugs, rebell against social standards

91

election 1960

ike: demo congress, supported by rural protest

R: nixon
D: kennedy catholic, critize su lead. supported by large cities

92

space program

increase gov spending for defense n space explor. ken want land on moon by the end of the decade

93

peace corps

set up by ken, recruit yaUS to give tech aid to developing country

94

alliance for progress

ken, promted land reform n econ develop in latin america.

trade expansion act: reduce traiff with new WEU

95

bay of pigs

ken let CIA train cubn exiles to overthrow castro, landed at bay but fail to upris, exiles surender, ken didn't help, castro got more power n aid from su

96

berlin wall

ken meet khrushchev vienna 61, K threaten president n want us troop out of berlin. ken refused. East Ger built wall around Wberlin to stop EG from fleeing to WG. ken didn't do anything to stop wall but assured WB of US support

97

cuban missle crisis

us discovered su building sites in cuba for launching missles to us. ken set up naval blockade of cuba until missles removed. war if su ships challenge blcokate. su agrred to remove if us don't invade cuba n remove missles from tyrkey.

telecommunication hotline btween them estab.

98

flexible response

diff from massive retaliation. ken ^ spending on conventional arms n milit foces. reduce riske of using nukes

99

the green berets

flexible response ^ temptation to send elite forces

100

lee harvy oswald

killed Ken

101

dallas

chief justice warren said that oswald acted alone. yrs later: unanswerd questions- conspiracy theories about involvment by organized crimes, cuba, cia, fbi.

citizens began loss of credibility in gov

102

warren commission

lead by chief justice warren conlclude oswald lone assasine

103

ike on civil rights

late 1950s.
-estab permanent civil rights commision
-justice department has power to protect the voting rights of aa

s still discourage aa from voting

104

nonviolent protest

college students starts to sit in restricted area to get arrested. SNCC to organize the movements.

other aa use the tatic.

progress of civil rights:clow.
60: aa impatience= violence

105

unions

^power bc AFofL n CIO merg. unions more conerv, blue collar became midclass

106

religion

organized; expand, ^ church, tolerance, ! interest in doctrine

107

women

home; full time job, traditional. more married go to work but lower wages than man. baby n child care by spock reinforces this view

108

kennedy new frontier

aid to edu, healthcarem urban renew, civil rights

109

kennedy policies

blocked domestic programs
econ: some sucess (face steel executive bc overprice leading to infaltion, so the price went down)

inspired ya to help the country

110

nucear test ban treaty

signed 63 after cuban missile crisis
end nuke testing in atmosphere

111

johnson

vp of ken. p after assasine. expand versions of ken civil rights bill and income tax cut= ^ jobs, consumer spending

congress: demo

112

micheal harrington's the other america

focused nat attention on usppl still in poverty. john's response: declare a unconstitutional war on poverty. created OEO n coomunity action program: the poor runs the antipoverty program in their own neighboorhood (controversal)

113

office of econ oppurtunity

antipoverty agency w/ money: preschool, job corps edu, litracy program, legal services
successful until vietnam war

114

barry goldwater

repub's chpoce. supported by conservatives. support ending welfare (TVA n SS) demo: thinks hes an extrememist n would ww3

115

64 election

johnson: demo bs goldwater

116

great society reforms:
centralized

food stamps
national foundations on arts n humanities
medicare
medicaid
elementary n secondary edu act
higher edu act
immigration act

child nutrition act

117

nader's unsafe at any speed

congress response passed regulations of car indus, saved lives

118

carson's silent spring

clean air n water laws. fed park/wilderness area expanded

119

civil rights act of 64

made segreg illegal in public facilities and gave fed gov power to enforce school desegregation. set up equal employment oppurtunity commission to end descrimination in employment

120

24th admend 64

abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax that had kept poor from voting

121

james meredith

aa vet attempted to enroll in uni of mississipppi. fed court let him attend. ken send marshals n troops to control mob violence

122

george wallace

governmor that tried to stop an aa student from entering unialabama, ken send troops to stop

123

letter from birmingham jail

MLK n followers (nonviolent) jailed there for illegal march. aa believed jailed unjustice. letter got ken to support civil rights bill

124

march on washington

blacks n whites peaceful march om support of civil rights bill

125

march to Montgomery selma

killings n brutality (response to civil rights act) against voting rights marches led by MLK. voting rights march was meet with beating . tear gas bloody sunday. televised . john send troops to protect king n marchers. caused passing of voting rights act

126

malcome x

converted to black muslim. critize king as submersive to whites. wanted to use violence. will leave black muslim. assassinated

127

stokely carmichael

chairman of SNCC, violence n black power n reacial separatism.

128

sncc

malcome x influence young aa to b in this organization

129

watts
slogan:burn baby burn

afte r65, aa arrested by white in aa (watts in LA) lead ti riots that killed n destroyed buildings. race riots errputed many tomes in major cities black neigh.

130

kerner commision

fed investigation of race riots concluded 68 that racism is responsible n us is becoming 2 diff societies

131

de facto segreg

(replacing de jure)

132

MLK assasination

peaceful marches unsucessful. argued w/ john over viet bc it drained money from social programs. killed by white.

133

assasination impact

riots errupted. violence spread to white blacklash in white blue collard voters

134

voting rights act 1965

ended literacy test n provide fed registrar in areas where blacks were kept from voting. signifcant in the deep south

135

black muslims

lead by muhammad peached black nationalism, separatism n self improvement

136

warren court brown v edu 60

chief justice impact similar to marshall. affect justice system, state political system n protecting unpopular individ rights. before, scourt protected property rights. protected 1st admendment

some ppl wanted him to b impeached

137

mapp v ohio

illegally seized evidened evidence cant b used in court against accused

138

guideon v wainwright

required that state court provide counsel for poor defendants

139

escobedo v illinois

required police to inform an arrested person of their right to remain silent

140

miranda v arizona

right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police

141

yates v us

1st admendment protected radical n revolutionary speech even by communist unless it was a clear danger to the safety of the country

142

engel v vitale

state required prayers n biblical stuff in pubschool violated the 1st admend

143

griswold v connecticut

state could not prohhibit use of birth control (rights to privacy)

144

sds 62

radical student . Leader: Hayden. declaration of purpose: Port Huron Statement: university decisions should be made with student's consent. Followers: new left

145

berkeley 64

1st major student protest on berkeley campus. called free speech move. wanted end to uni restriction on student political actvities.

across the countru: student protested unit rules drinking n dorm. wanted greater voice in gov of uni. more protest during viet.

146

weathermen

most radical fringe of sds/ violence nvandalism in their attack on americaui. opposit of early new left ideals

147

hippies 60
flower children

like new left. counterculture. young ppl in rebellious living styles. dress, music, drug. beatles.

148

woodstock music festival 69

gathering of young ppl, height of counterculture. ya destroyed theri life bc drugs lsd. ended in 1970 bc econ uncertainties

149

sexual revolution causes
counterculture. coninued beyond 60

change toward sexual expression. more open
-Kinsey

- antibiotics for sexual related diseases

- sciene: birth controll pill

lead to changine attitudes on casual sex w/ many partners
lead to increase in illigetimate births rape n sexabuse AIDS

150

alfred kinsey

survey on seual practice. result: premartial, cheating n homo are common

151

feminine mystique by betty freidan

contributed to renewal of woman mov:
increase edu n employment, sexual revlition, civil rights mov

152

NOW

founded by friedan (encourage midclass women to professional career n home) use tactics of civil rights mov. goal to secure equal treatment of women job oppurtunitu

153

ERA 72

equal rights admend. euality cannot b denied on basis of sex. was not accepted in 38 states. defeated bc growing antifeminism by conserv threatened traditinal roles of women

154

1st group of liberal group to identify w/black struggle

college n uni students

155

women's movment

changed attitude n hiring. women moved into profession previouslt men's

156

congress' antidisceimatory laws

equal pay act 63
civil rights act 64

157

ken viet

belived in dominoe like ike
send aid to SV

158

Diem

unpopular, not supported by peasants. monk suicide protest against his policies.
overthrown/killed by SU generals

159

guld of tonkin resolution
johnson

NV fired at US warship at guld. us authorized to send combat forces. Resolution gave p power to use any means to preotect us interest . war not declared therefor illegal. cost would hurt great society

160

rolling thunder

air attack using B-52 bomber on NV target. the us combat troops qwew used for the first time.

161

search n destroy

us tatic, alienate peasants
genral: westmoreland

162

credibility gap

misinfo from leaders n john not speaking about reality of war

163

john's plan for viet

long term presure. inner circle of gov doesn't undderstand everything

164

hawk:
supports war, anticommunist

doves: anti war, civil war

nondoves: bc lives/money too much that could b spend on city prob n poor

antiwar: mccarthy

165

tet offensive

vietcong attacked SV. us counter was succesful.
NS: political victory bc US saw on tv (setback)
joint chief of staff wants to send more troops, john's advisor don't want escalation

166

68 problems:
tet, johnson, mlk killed, riots, nation unrest, 2nd ken killed

john told US he would limit NV bombing n negotiate n would not b P again

peace talk did not reach conclusion. war continued, no more troops send oer

167

election 68

conserv: wallace, nixon (supported by those who are tired of 60s problem)

liberal: VP humphrey, underdog

168

demo convention at chicago

demo divided. h supported John, police riots, ND

169

wallace

white backlash. gov of alabama, self nominated: america independent party

170

nixon

repub popular. hawk won