Flashcards in apush 1945-1969 Deck (170):
end of colonization
many soldiers returned.
milit spending during CW finance migration n changes
repub control legis/ conserv
edu n money/loan from gov to vet
spending during CW finance migration n changes
project of increase in mass produce, low priced family home on NY. ! interest n rates on mortage.
offers warmth n ! tax n econ support
employment act of 1946
health insurance, ^minwage, full employment. createdcouncil of econ advisor help gov promote econ welfare
relaxed control by sdemo n repubb leads to ^ inflation rate
strikes n union
workers wannted ^wage leads to strike railroad n mine.
truman tough response seize mine and soldier.
united mine workers cancelled strike
demo, continue ND, full employment n civil rights for aa
civil rights measure by truman
end discrimination, establish committee on civil rights 1946 n strengthened civil rights division of Justice Department (help end segreg in school).
tried to end seg in gov n military, south against this
fair employment practice commision
trumen, prevent employrs from discriminating in hiring aa. sdemo blocked it
2 term presidency
taft hartley act
probusiness ended close shop, anti union. ended boycott
election of 1848
truman is unpopular.
liberal dem- progressive bc agressive foreign policy threatening world peace
sdemo: States right party/dixiecrat bc civil right
healthcare, fed aid to edu, civil rights legislation, fund for public build n new farm program. conserv block
allowed: ^ min wage n extended sss
why fair deal defeated
truman political conflict w/congress
su help against japan last minute
j surrender unconditionally
nazi trails (Nuremberg)
by bretton wood conference fund rebuilding after wartorn stuff
UN security council
maintain and peacekepp mison. 5 perm sets n veto power there.
atomic energy commision
part un, approve by su
reject by SU, regu nuclear energy n eliminate atomic bombs.
soviet satellite states
eeu ditator loyal to SU. SU influenced free election. protection against future atack
german occupation zone
east: german demo repub
west: econ recov. su want ppl out of berlin
speech by churchhill caled for demo to stop communism
decides how to contain soviet agression
containment of russian expansion, would/might lead to stopping communist world denom n lead to peace
"cold war" argues that containment should be/only needed in some places
money send to greece n turkey so they;; stay demo
soviet deman for controll of dardanelles/turkey n commun uprising against greece gov
the marshall plan
EU recovery program
us send econ aid EU (Post war: EU in ruins= increase chance in communism) to help econ n demo gov. effective.
SU refused the aid
divided germany created afte rberlin airlift
west: fed repub germany
east: german demo repub
broke washington fairwel address. military defense/alliance. eisenhower: commander
national secrurity act 1947
centralized department of defense coordinate militray operation
NSC coordinate foerign policy
selective service system n peacetime draft
how to fight cold war
- ^ us gov defense spedning 20% of GNP
- form alliance w/ noncommunist
- convince us ppl to agree with this
resist us influece after imperialism
pacific n philipine: american troops occcupied
under us/mcarthur control.
generals trial n killied.
new constitution w/emporer
no claim to korea n island
before: chiang (natinalit)
defeated by popular, organized mao n fleed to taiwan. us tried to help
mao n stalim
police action not war
japan n soviet n us troops left
nk attack. un attack back to chinese border (MacArthur). china drove un back to 38
fired bc wanted war against china. truman said no
soft on communism
criticism on trumen n demo. repub wanted to fight china
loyalty review board
investigate background of federal employees. many resigned /fired
illiegal to teach overthrow of gov by force/ join a antigov organization
mccarran internal security act 1950
-unlawful to support totalitarian government
-restrict employment n travel of ppl joinging communist organ
-authorized creation camps
find coomunist in gov official, boyscott, hollywood (testify in committee
if they refused to testify then blacklist from industry
nixon case has chamber as communist witness against hiss (official of state department, help yalta) accused of being commun.
founf guiltu of giving info on bombs to SU, killed.
said that communist still in us. power came from fear of unsupported accusation.anti trumen n demo. attacked weathy supported by working class
end of mccarthy
seen as cruel bully on tv during hearing about commun in army
eisenhower 50s repub. 2 terms
more focus on foerign policy rather than domestic
truman left "a mess in washington" (scandals). election 1952 against taft. chose nixon as vice presid
ike was not a politician unlike nixon.
promised to end war in korea
delegation of authority. admistration: businesslike
korean armistance: 38th parallel in the end
i like ike
repub slogan for eisenhower. supported by mid class
used campaign fund for own prson use n was almost dropped from election. saved himself by checkers speech: pathos, wifedauhterdog there.
modern republicanism (bland leading the bland)
cared about budget. moderate on domestic issue,
accept ND n extended some. sss n minwage n pubhous.
created HEW (depart health,edu, welfare) under Hobby: 1st repub cabinet
soilbank program: ! farm produc, ^ income
no fed health insurance n fed aid to edu
highway act: ^construction linking majcities. denfense. created jobs n ^suburb growth. bd for railroad, public trnaport n envir
low inflation rate. sucess econ policy. disposable income triples. postwar: highest standard of living in the world
dulles. 2nd term: demo control congress
hated truman's way. challenge SU n China. liberating EEU nations under soviet n encourage taiwan vs comunist china. supported by conservatives. if us pushed to war, commun would back down cuz us has nukes. prevented by ike
greater reliance on nukes n air power less on conventional force. dave money. turned ino policy for mutual extinction (MAD). did not prevent smaller wars n norm fighting still used for those
ike:^ in covert actions used in foeirgn policy, less expensive/objectionable.
CIA helped overthrow Iranian gov bc threat to US's rights to the oil. the return of shah/monarch provided fav oil$ n purchases of US arms
CIA ovethrow gov that threatened us busi interest. cia operation ^ anti-american feeling n damaged relations w/ iran
geneva conference 1954
french: controlled IndoCHina, J took during WW2 n tried to take it back but viet n cambod resist. ^ support of national n communi leader Minh. Truman gave aid to F. SU n China aid Viet Minh ( lead by Hochi). french surrender at dienbienphu. ike didn't help.
conferance: french agree to give up indochina. divided up to cmabod, laos, viet (was to b divided at 17th parallel temproaily until election)
S: Ngo Dinh DIem cathlic, urban, fled from north commun. no general election to unit bc S fear of Nvicotry
if SViet fell under commun, another nation inSE asia would fall then oceania
dulles: regional defense pact, agree to defend one another in case of attack.
allies, main oceania, philip, thai, pakis
US support isreal n friendly nations in ME
Nasser (Egypt) asked US to fund Aswan Dam, Us said nom then asked SU n they said yes. but needed more funds to Nasser seized Suez canal. Brit, France n (Isreal) attacked n took it back. Ike didn't like it n told the UN so forces withdrew
spirit of geneva.
cold war thaw
after stalin died, both us (atoms for peace) n su wanted to slow the arms race. SU had good relations w. noncommun countries. Ike n SU bulganin meet. US proposed open skies (aerial photography of opposing nation to eliminate suprise nuke attack. soviet said no. SU leader Khrushchev wanted peace w/ West
gov (backed by SU) overthorwn. SU send tanks to crush those wanting hungary out of warsaw pact. US didn't do anything bc fear of big war. gave su official sphere of influence in EEU. ended CW thaw
SU lanched first 2 satellites orbiting earth n had better rocket designs. us schools criticsed for matnsci.
^ fear of nuke war
response to sputnik by congress. the act authorized sending money to school for math, sci, n foreign lang.
congress also created NASA
second berlin crisis
gave west 6 months to pull troop out of west berlin before turning city of east germans. US refused to accept. ike invited SU leader to visit US n both agree to putt of crisis
2 week before planned paris meeting btw US n SU, russian shot down US spy plane (U-2), expose us tatic for getting info- SU's missle program. ike admitted it after exposed. SU leader walked out of paris meeting n ended thaw
fidel castro 1959
overthrew cuban dicttor Batista. nationalized us busi n properties. Ike cut of trade. Castro turned to SU for support n set up a toalotarian commun state. CIA train anti commun in cuba to retake their land n did not make decision to take action
farewel address, warned of - impact of CW on US. warned country to not turning into a military/imperial state
us pledge econ n milit aid to ME threatened by commun
arabs bation formed it concerning exporting petroleum exports
baseball player, first aa to play in major league team since 1880
truman's integration policies
integrated the arm forces in 1948 n intro civil rights legislation in congress.
aa in south still legally segregated/
aa is poorly edu n poor.
civil rights began: saa moved from rural to urban
naa joined demo during ND
cold war influence
on civil rights/social attitude. US represented freedom n demo, therefor racism n discim needed to b corrected
brown v board of edu of topeka
naacp overpower plessy v ferguson allow segregation.
naacp 50 thurgood marshalla argued segreg aa in pubschool was unconstit bc 14th admend (equal protect by law). SCourt agrees.
Justice warren: separate facilities wrong n no more school segreg
reaction from South: some congress signed southern manifest condemming SC abusing powers. state close schools n set up private. kkk violence.
56, governor used national guard to prevent aa students from enetering HS, ike intervene by using troop to protect aa.action from South: some congress signed southern manifest
only a small % of aa went to integ school
montgomery bus boycott
rose didn't gice up east fpr a whote passenger. arrested for violation of segreg law. MLF leader of aa boycott, nonviolent. scourt ruled segreg law uncon
MLK and the SCLC
mlk got ministry n churches in south to get involved in civil rights
forced 3.8 mill to return to mexico. remaining were discrim n exploitation
no more ban on asian immigrants.
impact of tv
became center of family, bland network
agressive adv= name brand, suburb shopping, credit card, chain fast food on roads, standardize product.
rock n roll= teen
mass market n inexensive music, elvis presley
^ reading, start of paperback.
the organization man by whyte on loss of individ
^ conglomerates: one business makes diff things. more white collar than blue collar jobs. working for magazine=sucess. corporate promote teamwork n conserv conformity.
Galbraith: wealthy us don't care about addressing the need for ^ social spending for the common good
Riesman comments that conformitty being a big deal
wrote about individ's struggle against conformity
catcher in the rye
rebellious writers n intellectual, leader: Kerouac n Ginsberg.
spontaneity, drugs, rebell against social standards
ike: demo congress, supported by rural protest
D: kennedy catholic, critize su lead. supported by large cities
increase gov spending for defense n space explor. ken want land on moon by the end of the decade
set up by ken, recruit yaUS to give tech aid to developing country
alliance for progress
ken, promted land reform n econ develop in latin america.
trade expansion act: reduce traiff with new WEU
bay of pigs
ken let CIA train cubn exiles to overthrow castro, landed at bay but fail to upris, exiles surender, ken didn't help, castro got more power n aid from su
ken meet khrushchev vienna 61, K threaten president n want us troop out of berlin. ken refused. East Ger built wall around Wberlin to stop EG from fleeing to WG. ken didn't do anything to stop wall but assured WB of US support
cuban missle crisis
us discovered su building sites in cuba for launching missles to us. ken set up naval blockade of cuba until missles removed. war if su ships challenge blcokate. su agrred to remove if us don't invade cuba n remove missles from tyrkey.
telecommunication hotline btween them estab.
diff from massive retaliation. ken ^ spending on conventional arms n milit foces. reduce riske of using nukes
the green berets
flexible response ^ temptation to send elite forces
lee harvy oswald
chief justice warren said that oswald acted alone. yrs later: unanswerd questions- conspiracy theories about involvment by organized crimes, cuba, cia, fbi.
citizens began loss of credibility in gov
lead by chief justice warren conlclude oswald lone assasine
ike on civil rights
-estab permanent civil rights commision
-justice department has power to protect the voting rights of aa
s still discourage aa from voting
college students starts to sit in restricted area to get arrested. SNCC to organize the movements.
other aa use the tatic.
progress of civil rights:clow.
60: aa impatience= violence
^power bc AFofL n CIO merg. unions more conerv, blue collar became midclass
organized; expand, ^ church, tolerance, ! interest in doctrine
home; full time job, traditional. more married go to work but lower wages than man. baby n child care by spock reinforces this view
kennedy new frontier
aid to edu, healthcarem urban renew, civil rights
blocked domestic programs
econ: some sucess (face steel executive bc overprice leading to infaltion, so the price went down)
inspired ya to help the country
nucear test ban treaty
signed 63 after cuban missile crisis
end nuke testing in atmosphere
vp of ken. p after assasine. expand versions of ken civil rights bill and income tax cut= ^ jobs, consumer spending
micheal harrington's the other america
focused nat attention on usppl still in poverty. john's response: declare a unconstitutional war on poverty. created OEO n coomunity action program: the poor runs the antipoverty program in their own neighboorhood (controversal)
office of econ oppurtunity
antipoverty agency w/ money: preschool, job corps edu, litracy program, legal services
successful until vietnam war
repub's chpoce. supported by conservatives. support ending welfare (TVA n SS) demo: thinks hes an extrememist n would ww3
johnson: demo bs goldwater
great society reforms:
national foundations on arts n humanities
elementary n secondary edu act
higher edu act
child nutrition act
nader's unsafe at any speed
congress response passed regulations of car indus, saved lives
carson's silent spring
clean air n water laws. fed park/wilderness area expanded
civil rights act of 64
made segreg illegal in public facilities and gave fed gov power to enforce school desegregation. set up equal employment oppurtunity commission to end descrimination in employment
24th admend 64
abolished the practice of collecting a poll tax that had kept poor from voting
aa vet attempted to enroll in uni of mississipppi. fed court let him attend. ken send marshals n troops to control mob violence
governmor that tried to stop an aa student from entering unialabama, ken send troops to stop
letter from birmingham jail
MLK n followers (nonviolent) jailed there for illegal march. aa believed jailed unjustice. letter got ken to support civil rights bill
march on washington
blacks n whites peaceful march om support of civil rights bill
march to Montgomery selma
killings n brutality (response to civil rights act) against voting rights marches led by MLK. voting rights march was meet with beating . tear gas bloody sunday. televised . john send troops to protect king n marchers. caused passing of voting rights act
converted to black muslim. critize king as submersive to whites. wanted to use violence. will leave black muslim. assassinated
chairman of SNCC, violence n black power n reacial separatism.
malcome x influence young aa to b in this organization
slogan:burn baby burn
afte r65, aa arrested by white in aa (watts in LA) lead ti riots that killed n destroyed buildings. race riots errputed many tomes in major cities black neigh.
fed investigation of race riots concluded 68 that racism is responsible n us is becoming 2 diff societies
de facto segreg
(replacing de jure)
peaceful marches unsucessful. argued w/ john over viet bc it drained money from social programs. killed by white.
riots errupted. violence spread to white blacklash in white blue collard voters
voting rights act 1965
ended literacy test n provide fed registrar in areas where blacks were kept from voting. signifcant in the deep south
lead by muhammad peached black nationalism, separatism n self improvement
warren court brown v edu 60
chief justice impact similar to marshall. affect justice system, state political system n protecting unpopular individ rights. before, scourt protected property rights. protected 1st admendment
some ppl wanted him to b impeached
mapp v ohio
illegally seized evidened evidence cant b used in court against accused
guideon v wainwright
required that state court provide counsel for poor defendants
escobedo v illinois
required police to inform an arrested person of their right to remain silent
miranda v arizona
right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police
yates v us
1st admendment protected radical n revolutionary speech even by communist unless it was a clear danger to the safety of the country
engel v vitale
state required prayers n biblical stuff in pubschool violated the 1st admend
griswold v connecticut
state could not prohhibit use of birth control (rights to privacy)
radical student . Leader: Hayden. declaration of purpose: Port Huron Statement: university decisions should be made with student's consent. Followers: new left
1st major student protest on berkeley campus. called free speech move. wanted end to uni restriction on student political actvities.
across the countru: student protested unit rules drinking n dorm. wanted greater voice in gov of uni. more protest during viet.
most radical fringe of sds/ violence nvandalism in their attack on americaui. opposit of early new left ideals
like new left. counterculture. young ppl in rebellious living styles. dress, music, drug. beatles.
woodstock music festival 69
gathering of young ppl, height of counterculture. ya destroyed theri life bc drugs lsd. ended in 1970 bc econ uncertainties
sexual revolution causes
counterculture. coninued beyond 60
change toward sexual expression. more open
- antibiotics for sexual related diseases
- sciene: birth controll pill
lead to changine attitudes on casual sex w/ many partners
lead to increase in illigetimate births rape n sexabuse AIDS
survey on seual practice. result: premartial, cheating n homo are common
feminine mystique by betty freidan
contributed to renewal of woman mov:
increase edu n employment, sexual revlition, civil rights mov
founded by friedan (encourage midclass women to professional career n home) use tactics of civil rights mov. goal to secure equal treatment of women job oppurtunitu
equal rights admend. euality cannot b denied on basis of sex. was not accepted in 38 states. defeated bc growing antifeminism by conserv threatened traditinal roles of women
1st group of liberal group to identify w/black struggle
college n uni students
changed attitude n hiring. women moved into profession previouslt men's
congress' antidisceimatory laws
equal pay act 63
civil rights act 64
belived in dominoe like ike
send aid to SV
unpopular, not supported by peasants. monk suicide protest against his policies.
overthrown/killed by SU generals
guld of tonkin resolution
NV fired at US warship at guld. us authorized to send combat forces. Resolution gave p power to use any means to preotect us interest . war not declared therefor illegal. cost would hurt great society
air attack using B-52 bomber on NV target. the us combat troops qwew used for the first time.
search n destroy
us tatic, alienate peasants
misinfo from leaders n john not speaking about reality of war
john's plan for viet
long term presure. inner circle of gov doesn't undderstand everything
supports war, anticommunist
doves: anti war, civil war
nondoves: bc lives/money too much that could b spend on city prob n poor
vietcong attacked SV. us counter was succesful.
NS: political victory bc US saw on tv (setback)
joint chief of staff wants to send more troops, john's advisor don't want escalation
tet, johnson, mlk killed, riots, nation unrest, 2nd ken killed
john told US he would limit NV bombing n negotiate n would not b P again
peace talk did not reach conclusion. war continued, no more troops send oer
conserv: wallace, nixon (supported by those who are tired of 60s problem)
liberal: VP humphrey, underdog
demo convention at chicago
demo divided. h supported John, police riots, ND
white backlash. gov of alabama, self nominated: america independent party