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Flashcards in Bio unit 1 Deck (56):
1

Prokaryotes bacteria

1st living thing on earth. 3.7 billion yrs

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Earth's age

4.5 billion yrs

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Stanley miller (1953)

Made a model of early earth. Lead to polymerization hypothesis

4

Biological system depends on molecular interaction .

Enzymes speed up chem rxn

5

Emergent properties

Properties at higher level in hierarchy of life that doesn't exist

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Hierarchy of life

Biological molecules
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ systems
Organism
Population
Communities
Ecosystem
Biosphere

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1. Characteristics of life

Composed of atoms arranged into biological molecules
-ca, hy, ox, nit, pho, sulf

-carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins

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2 characteristics of life

Having DNA for building protein
DNA-RNA-protein-everything else

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3 characteristics of life

Get energy and materials from their surroundings to build biological molecules

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Metabolism

All chem rxn that takes place inside a body to keep it alive

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4 characteristic of life

Grow and develop
Life cycle

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5 characteristics of life

Connected through the Natural flow of energy and materials
-matter: clyclical
-energy: unidirectional

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6 characteristics of life

Reproduce and pass DNA to offspring (inheritance and heredity)

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7 characteristics of life

Respond physically to their surroundings in order to survive

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8 characteristics of living things populations not individuals

Living things evolve

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Evolution

Darwin and wallace (British naturalist) propose it.

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Phenotype

Traits

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Fitness

Ability to survive and reproduce

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Classification

Domain-kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species

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Phylogeny

Evolutionary relationships

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Trace elements

Found in less than 1% of biological material

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Energy shells: placement

Orbital: pathway of movement.
1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz

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Potential energy

Bump up energy lanes with an energy input giving them more

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Absorb energy: away

Lost energy: towards nucleus

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Atomic size

Increased left and down

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Electro negativity

Up and right increase

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Tracers

Tagging molecule, radioactive energy
ex. idione is absorbed by thyroid

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Gregor Mendel

First generosity

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Fitness

Success in which it reaches reproductive maturity and produces an offspring.

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Competition

Is good for driving species toward better fitness

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4% of body

Mg, na, co, k, ca

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Polymerize

Form together to b more complex things

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isomers

2 molecules that contain the same number of atoms but are arranged in different ways

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0-.7

nonpolar

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.8-1.7

polar

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more than 1.7

ionic

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inert

atoms that are not reactive

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dissociate

break apart

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hydrogen bond

drew enzyme and substrate together

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water's emergent properties

-hydrogen bond
cohesion
adhesion
-high specific heat
-high heat of vaporization
-unique density reversal

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denature

loss of structure in protein

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carbon

-median electronegativity (nonpolar bond-strong and stable))
-max # of bonding sites

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hydrocarbon

all nonpolar molecules with a carbon backbone

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hydroxyl

OH
partial charge
*makes biological molecule polar
(carbohydrate)

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carbonal

C=O
double polar covalent
*polar
(carbohydrates)

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carboxyl (carboxylic acid)

COOH
COOH- H+(releases hydrogen)
*polar
*ionic
*acidic
(protein)

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amino

NH2
NH3+
*polar
*ionic
*Base: absorb hydrogen ion
(protein)

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sulfhydryl

SH
*nonpolar
*stabilizes protein structure
(protein)

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phosphate group

PO4
three oxygen with negative charges
double bond with one oxygen
*ionic
*acidic

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carbonic acid/carbonate

prevent drastic fluxuation/changes in pH
-too basic (carbonic to bicarbonic)
H2CO3_HCO3-

(drops H+)

-too acidic (bicarbonic to carbonic)
HCO3-_H2CO3

(picks up hydrogen)

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carbohydrate
(release energy)
sugar

monomers: monosaccharides
CH20
Covalent bond: glycosidic linkage
-triose: 3 carbon
-pentose: 5
--hexose: 6

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Lipids
(energy storage, cell membrane)

mostly nonpolar
monomer: fatty acid
saturated: straight

steroids: fatty acid. 4 hydrocarbon rings with short fatty acid tail.
(prevent cell membrane from falling apart. estrogen, testosterone)

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Lipids
polymer

triglyceride (fat) phydrophobic:
glycerol+3 fatty acids
nonpolar: ester linkage

phospholipids
glycerol+ 2 fatty acid+ phosphate group (hydrophilic)



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protein

monomers: amino acids
globular shape

-hydrogen
-amino group
-carboxyl acid
-R

-primary
-secondary
-tertiary
-quaternary

disulfide bridge: nonpolar btw R groups

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Nucleic Acid

monomers: nucleotides
5 carbon sugar
Phosphate group
nitrogenous base

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Polymerize

Form together to more complex things